Libmonster ID: RU-17189
Author(s) of the publication: Vladimir VASILYEV

(Lomonosov)

by Vladimir VASILYEV, RAS Corresponding Member, Chairman of the Research Council of the Russian Academy of Sciences on the integrated program "History of the Russian Academy of Sciences"

The activity of Mikhail Lomonosov, an outstanding Russian scientist, a person of truly encyclopedic knowledge, enlightener and genuine patriot of Russia was manifold. When remembering our great compatriot, we shall repeat not once the words "the first", "for the first time" and "stands first". It is quite unthinkable, but this is the case: the first Russian scientist and "the founder of the Russian science"; one of the first two Russian academicians; the first professor of chemistry; "the creator of the first university" (according to the Russian poet Pushkin he was also "himself our first university"); he was the first to advocate reorganization of bookselling in the capitalist way; publication of multivolume editions by subscription started in Russia for the first time on his initiative; he stood first to deliver lectures in Russian for a large attendance and at academic meetings and to head the struggle for revision of the Academy Regulations of 1747, which gave preference to foreigners and held out no hope even of a smallest autonomy for the Academy, and many other things.

"The greatest genius of the new time" was Pushkin's assessment of Lomonosov. Academician Vavilov called Lomonosov a genius of the great Russian people and a banner of our culture. It was stressed at the grand meeting in the Kremlin Palace of Congresses (today the State Concert Hall) devoted to the 250th anniversary of the USSR Academy of Sciences that "the titanic lifework of Lomonosov, a scientist and encyclopedist of genius raised to a new level the whole activity of the Academy already in the 18th century". As Academician Kursanov noted in his report "Lomonosov and the Academy of Sciences" at the grand meeting devoted to the 250th anniversary of the

Academy of Sciences (Leningrad, October 10, 1975), the principles and ideals of our science were conformable to those proclaimed by Lomonosov already in the earliest days of the Academy of Sciences.

Back to the quotation used in the headline to this article, it should be stressed that it is just Lomonosov who presented his unequalled aptitude and keenness in sciences to his motherland and people. It is testified by the printed works of the great scientist and citizen, in particular, by the academic publishing house, and also unusually vast literature on his life and activity (monographs, collected books, reference and encyclopedic editions, articles

Science in Russia, No.6, 2011

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in journals of the Academy of Sciences, co-authored monographs and collected books), which are briefly discussed in this article.

His name is closely associated with the publication of the first collected works in Russia. It is on record that when presenting his manuscript on January 25, 1751, Lomonosov addressed the Academy of Sciences with a request to publish his collected works: "I would like to send all my odes and some other works to print, because there are many people, who want to read them."

The name of his first collected works was "Collection of different works in verses and prose". The title page read: "...by Mikhail Lomonosov. Book one. Printed by the Imperial Academy of Sciences in 1751." The printing of the book two of Lomonosov's collected works was postponed to an indefinite time, because, on his report, it was decided to print his "Grammar book" "prior to the book two". Book one included spiritual and laudable odes each in ten, nineteen inscriptions and one laudable dedication (to empress Yelizaveta Petrovna). As regards the print run of "Collection of different works in verses and prose" by Lomonosov, it could be regarded as large at that time. Initially, on February 11, 1751 the secretariat of the Academy of Sciences decided to print "odes and other works by Lomonosov" as a separate book of a print run of 725 copies, but later, on March 8, 1751, it took a decision to increase the print run of the book by extra 600 copies (on certain evidence, the total print run made even 1,450 copies).

During Lomonosov's lifetime the second collection of his works in two books was published in 1757-1759 by Moscow University with supplements and revisions made by the author.

In 1768, three years after Lomonosov's death, the Academy of Sciences published the third edition of his collected works with a print run of 1,200 copies, whose thematic material repeated the first edition. The whole print run was sold out.

In 1784-1787 the Academy of Sciences prepared and published for the first time the complete works by Lomonosov. The title page read: "Complete works by Mikhail Lomonosov with presentation of his life and many unpublished creative efforts. Part one. In Saint Petersburg. Published by the Imperial Academy of Sciences in 1784." A special notice was published in the Sankt-Peterburgskiye vedomosty: "The Imperial Academy of Sciences, making it its business to yield due praise according to its lights to its fellows, who pursued sciences to the good and glory of Russia, is going to publish, on a good-quality paper and by the best printing characters, the most complete set of works by the late Mr. Lomonosov" (emphasis added by the author of this article).

The Office of the Academy of Sciences decided to publish "Complete set of works by Mr. Lomonosov" in four parts on the best paper of different grades with a total print run of 700 copies. The complete set of works was published by means of the second and third stamp printing later twice, i.e. in 1794 of a print run of 500 copies and in 1803-1804 to the number of 600 copies, and the gross print run of 1,800 copies was entirely out of print.

Started from 1891 the publication of actually the first scientific edition of the complete set of works of the scientist and poet with text variants and notes was an important event in the study of Lomonosov's life and heritage. It was initiated by the Department of the Russian Language and

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Philology of the Imperial Academy of Sciences on the initiative of academician Sukhomlinov (1828-1901). The first five volumes were prepared and edited by academician Sukhomlinov and published with his foreword and, as printed on the book covers and title pages, "with comments of academician Sukhomlinov" (volume 1 was published in 1891, volume 2 in 1893, volume 3 in 1895, volume 4 in 1898, and volume 5 in 1902).

After Sukhomlinov died the work on the next volumes was postponed for many different reasons for a long time, though the work on preparation of texts continued in some measure. As a result, the sixth volume (already as an edition of the USSR Academy of Sciences) was published in 1934 under the editorship and with comments of Menshutkin and Knyazev, the seventh volume edited by Menshutkin was put out in the same year, and the closing eighth volume was published in 1948 upon his death. This volume was prepared for print and commented by Modzalevsky and published under the editorship and with a foreword of academician Vavilov.

Preparation of the eighth volume was carried out under the work plan of the Archives of the USSR Academy of Sciences and the Commission for History of the USSR Academy of Sciences. The volume includes 138 letters received by Lomonosov in a period from 1737 to 1765. Vavilov noted in the foreword that Lomonosov's scientific correspondence was worth much, and, on the whole, with the comments of Modzalevsky, it is of considerable scientific and historico-literary interest.

Even according to the present active publisher's standard "Publications, basic types. Terms and definitions", "Works of Lomonosov" published in 1891-1948 are actually the first scientific edition (with scientific and artistic elements, as it includes poetry), which approached closely, for the first time, the academic collected works if compared with all earlier published editions.

The tenth edition of Lomonosov's collected works, starting from "Collection of different works in verses and prose" of 1751 (as mentioned above, there were also other publishers apart from the Academy of Sciences), was published by the USSR Academy of Sciences in ten volumes in 1950-1959 (the publishing house of the USSR Academy of Sciences). The additional eleventh reference volume was put out in 1983 (the publishing house of the USSR Academy of Sciences after its reorganization already had its new company name "Nauka"). The volume included letters, translations, verses and indexes. This edition is considered the second proper scientific collected works. At the same time, it became the first complete academic set of Lomonosov's works.

In the Editorial Note at the end of the first volume, which included the scientist's works on physics and chemistry in 1738-1746, it was stressed that the new edition contained several hundred Lomonosov's documents not included in the previous edition and not published before. Among them there were different official records, which characterized Lomonosov as an outstanding organizer of the Russian science and education of the 18th century and also related to his activity as an experimental scientist. All the published texts were verified by the original sources, namely, the manuscripts and lifetime editions. In cases when no manuscripts or lifetime editions of Lomonosov's certain works were preserved, the printed text was based on the most reliable and examined critically source using a new spelling and

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changing Lomonosov's punctuation to the present-day punctuation, but preserving possibly all features typical of Lomonosov's language and giving his Latin text both in the original and Russian languages.

The 300th birth anniversary of Lomonosov is marked this year as a national event. The decree issued by the President of the Russian Federation noted a distinguished contribution of the great Russian scientist to the development of the national and world science. The Russian Federation government adopted a regulation for the jubilee celebration and approved a plan of measures on preparation and holding of the jubilee festivities. The governmental plan and the resolution of the Scientific and Publishing Council of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) have envisaged publication by the Academy of the Sciences in 2011 a complete (academic) set of Lomonosov's works in 10 volumes. Its preparation is carried out by the RAS Institute of History of Natural Science and Technology (leading organization) and its St. Petersburg branch, the RAS Institute of the Russian History and the RAS Institute of the Russian Language with the participation of main specialists of the scientific and editing personnel of Nauka Publishers of the Russian Academy of Sciences and its Scientific Center.

The edition of 1950-1959 was assumed as a basis and subjected to a significant rework. The works (their belonging to Lomonosov was established after publication of the tenth volume of his works in 1959) not published before and comments on them were added. The Latin was discarded from the text. Several works were put in other places in line with the logic of their creation and also due to change of several dating, which resulted in their complete rearrangement in separate volumes. The comments (notes) were updated and amended. Many of them were supplemented substantially from the point of view of the current state of Lomonosov's heritage study and reflected its today's development, which enriched for sure our ideas of the contribution made by the Russian outstanding scientist to the development of science as a whole in Russia. President of the Russian Academy of Sciences academician Osipov is the editor-in-chief of the jubilee collected works, and Vice President of the Russian Academy of Sciences academician Laverov is its deputy editor-in-chief.

Selected works and other writings of Lomonosov were published more than once by Nauka Publishers. For example, in 1986 to his 275th birth anniversary the two-volume edition "Lomonosov. Selected Works" was prepared by the Institute of Natural History and Technology of the USSR Academy of Sciences and published. The editorial board was composed of Karpeev, Mikulinsky (chairman), Pavlova and Stepanov. The first volume with the subtitle "Natural sciences and philosophy" included the scientist's works on natural sciences and philosophy, the essentials of the atomic theory, physics, astronomy, instrumentation technology, metallurgy, mining, geology and mineralogy, and geography. The second volume included the scientist's works on history and philology, samples of his poetry, letters and documents.

In 1961, for Lomonosov's 250th birth anniversary his selected works on chemistry and physics were published in the academic series "Classics of Science" founded by Academician Vavilov in 1945. With account of the concept of this meaningful scientific series, namely, return to the scientific usage of fundamental works of outstanding scientists

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of all times and peoples and as a tribute to the memory of their contribution to world science, with comments and notes of the present-day scientists, the highest assessment of Lomonosov's distinguished contribution is evident.

The editorial board of the series "Classics of Science" was headed by academician Petrovsky at that time. It was composed of such leading scientists as academicians Andreev, Bykov, Kazansky, Shmidt, Shcherbakov, Yudin and others. The selected works were published under the editorship of academician Topchiev and with the comments of Andreeva, Lezhneva and Figurovsky. It was said in the Editorial Note that the edition included 17 thesis works of the scientist on theoretical and experimental chemistry, physical chemistry, theories of atmospheric electricity, light and colors, physical properties of matter, and some others. It was assumed to provide the reader with a set of Lomonosov's works on chemistry and physics, which reflected the major trends in the research activity of the great scientist in the field of natural sciences. Special emphasis was made on preparation of notes and brief comments, which made clear passages in the text obscure to the modern reader and provided necessary information and literary references.

Lomonosov's scientific works published as separate books of certain subject areas were also innovative in many ways. They put themselves on record in the national science. He was author, editor, translator of many books and magazine articles and a tireless organizer of a number of academic publications. Lomonosov's own works were published during his lifetime more than 70 times, which makes approximately a tenth of all social publications of that time.

Descendants assess Lomonosov's works devoted to problems of literature, philology and the integrity of the Russian language as a contribution to the national culture of Russia. Already Belinsky wrote that Lomonosov was "the father and tutor" of our literature, "he was its Peter the Great" as he indicated the way "to our language and our literature". It is no wonder that the instructions of the President of the Academy of Sciences to publish Lomonosov's famous first "Russian grammar" of a print run of 1,200 copies (and it was as early as 1755!) was perceived as a tribute.

Another example. Soon after Lomonosov's death, information came from Forster in London that his son was going to translate into English "Ancient Russian History" of our great scientist. In the introductory chapter of the book Lomonosov set forth his views on the essence of history, which we considered possible and even necessary to cite them in this paper: "Spreading everywhere and being handled by mankind, history despises severity of the environment and gnawing of the antiquity. Finally, it gives examples of regency to sovereigns, obedience to the lieges, courage to soldiers, justice to judges, reason of old folks to the youth, especial firmness in advice to the elder, placable amusement joined with inexpressible benefit to everybody."

We can also mention such Lomonosov's works illustrated in this paper as "Brief Russian chronicle with genealogy", "Brief guide to eloquence. Book one, which includes RHETORIC describing the general rules of its eloquence, i.e. ORATORY and POETRY and composed in favor of those fond of verbal sciences", "Wolffs experimental physics from the German original, in the Latin language, abridged, translated into Russian by Mikhailo Lomono-

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sov", "Ancient Russian history from the beginning of the Russian people to the demise of grand prince Yaroslav I or to 1054" and others.

Known are hundreds of books and many thousand of articles devoted to Lomonosov. Among them there are such well-known names as Novikov, Derzhavin, Radishchev, Karamzin, Batyushkov, Pushkin, Gogol, Belinsky, Herzen, Chernyshevsky, Dobrolyubov, Pisarev, Nekrasov, Plekhanov, Mendeleev, Timiryazev and many others.

When we describe the published materials devoted to Lomonosov's scientific and creative heritage and his contribution to science, culture and education, we should stress above all, that a special place among these publications is occupied by works and initiatives of President of the USSR Academy of Sciences (1945-1951) academician S.Vavilov. He wrote and published solely about Lomonosov about 20 works for the last fifteen years of his life!

Vavilov was rightfully considered a major authority on Lomonosov's life and creative work. Among his works on the history of science a prominent place is held by his works as a researcher of Lomonosov's life and heritage and a popularizer of his creative work. To the 250th birth anniversary of the scientist the Institute of History of Natural Science and Technology of the USSR Academy of Sciences prepared, and the Publishing House of the USSR Academy of Sciences published in 1961 the collected book "Vavilov. Mikhail Lomonosov" (compiler and author of comments Chenakal, executive editor Kuznetsov). It included Vavilov's main works devoted to Lomonosov scattered in different collected books, magazines and newspapers and therefore remained difficult to access for the reader. In one article of this collected book Vavilov gave an impressive and comprehensive description of Lomonosov's significance for the Russian science and culture: "Impact of his genius and labor is immeasurable. Our language, our grammar, poetry and literature sprang from Lomonosov. Our Academy of Sciences obtained its real existence and sense only through Lomonosov... If we give a close consideration to our past, it will be clear that the milestones of our science achievements were laid down in the past already by Lomonosov."

Vavilov was the initiator of the preparation and publication of a unique book periodical, namely, the collected book "Lomonosov". The first three books were published with the signature stamp "Transactions of the Commission for History of the Academy of Sciences under the general editorship of academician Vavilov". He was the executive editor of these collected books. All subsequent collected books were prepared and published with the signature stamp of the Institute of History, Natural Science and Technology of the USSR Academy of Sciences.

The objective of this scientific and publishing project becomes clear, if we refer directly to Vavilov's statement: "Overall consideration and assessment of the historic importance of Lomonosov's activity, his ideas, discoveries and inventions for development of the national and world science will require much more efforts of the Soviet historians of science and technology. To this effect much has been already done, but there is still more to be done."

The first collected book was published to the 175th death anniversary of Lomonosov in 1940 under the editorship of Andreev and Modzalevsky. It was noted in its foreword that the book included a new material on Lomonosov's life and

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activity and published his chemical journal for the first time, but special attention was paid to Lomonosov's activity as a scientist and engineer.

The second collected book on Lomonosov (edited by Andreev and Modzalevsky, 1946), as well as the first one, included a number of articles and also a study of Lomonosov's image interpretation in the Russian press of 1865 for his 100th death anniversary, when his image and real deserts were mispresented for long in a part of publications. Apart from the executive editor academician Vavilov, the editorial board included Andreev, Yeliseev, Knyazev and Chenakal.

The third collected book was published in 1951, in the year of Vavilov's death, who was its executive editor as well as of the first two books. It was devoted mainly to Lomonosov's works on physics and chemistry. This publication was stimulated by the 200th anniversary of the first national research chemical laboratory created by Lomonosov, which was widely observed in 1948.

Starting from the fourth collected book this edition was published with the signature stamp of the Institute of History of Natural Science and Technology of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Chenakal was its executive editor. The editorial board was composed of Andreev, Perfilyev, Figurovsky and Chenakal. Some publications provided a new and more profound interpretation of matters of Lomonosov's life history discussed earlier in literature, and the other presented new facts of his creative activity. The book included the new chapter "Chronicle" dealing with the most important events related to study of Lomonosov's heritage by our science.

The fifth collected book with the introductory article "Lomonosov and the Russian Science" by Vavilov was pub-

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lished for the 250th birth anniversary of Lomonosov in 1961. The jubilee character of the collected book predetermined its orientation, it included mainly works of the review type based on the already published sources including Lomonosov's works. Publication of works by foreign authors also started. Figurovsky and Solovyov were the executive editors. Apart from them, the editorial board was composed of Zubov, Pogodin, Chenakal and Plotkin (academic secretary).

This tradition continued in the sixth collected book published in 1965 in connection with the 200th death anniversary of Lomonosov in April of that year. The similar publications strengthened the evidential effect at struggle with wrong statements on the lack of Lomonosov's notability in foreign countries and his noneffect on the development of science and culture in those countries. Chenakal was the executive editor of the sixth, as well as the fourth and fifth, collected book. However, the editorial board was modified and included Kedrov, Pogodin, Predtechensky, Chenakal and Shafranovsky.

The 275th anniversary of the USSR Academy of Sciences was marked in 1975. The overall assessment and presentation of Lomonosov's deserts as a founder of the national science were keynote of the celebration. It is reasonable that the records of the grand meeting were included in the sixth collected book published in 1977 with Pavlova as the executive editor. The editorial board was composed of Shafranovsky, Pavlova, Pogodina, Paina, Raskin and Sokolova. Other articles of the national and foreign scientists, published in that collected book, covered the poorly studied details of Lomonosov's activity and his relationship with outstanding contemporaries.

The eighth collected book was published in 1983. Karpeev was its executive editor, and the editorial board consisted of Iezuitov, Karpeev, Moiseeva, Pavlova, Piotrovsky, Sokolova, Stepanov, Fedorov and Shafranovsky. The collected book included traditionally a number of articles and documents, which were new or covered various aspects of Lomonosov's life and creative work in a new fashion, acquainted the reader with the scientist's neighborhood clarifying separate details of his biography and the circumstances of his struggle for transformation of the Academy of Sciences and, for the first time, drew attention to the person, who was the first to word eulogy to Lomonosov at an official meeting. On April 15, 1765, at a meeting of the Academy of Sciences oracular utterances were pronounced by Leclercq, who said, in particular, the following: "A person passed away, whose name will make an epoch in chronicles of the human reason and who was an all-round and brilliant genius embracing and illuminating many branches of knowledge."

The ninth collected book was published in 1991 and became a final book of this unique serial publication up to date. It includes articles dealing with the research results of Lomonosov's activity in various departments of knowledge, some new documents on the scientist's life and also information on people, with whom he was linked together more or less or was engaged in teamwork. The subject "Lomonosov and Russian culture" was also reflected in the collected book. The interrupted earlier publication of a

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bibliography of the scientist's works and literature about him was resumed.

Among the fundamental works devoted to Lomonosov's life and his scientific and creative heritage we should single out two published collective studies, which can be rightfully assessed as encyclopedic. They are "Lomonosov. Brief encyclopedic dictionary" (1999) and "Chronicle of Lomonosov's life and creative work" (1961). The first work was published to the 275th anniversary of the Academy of Sciences in Russia as the name of Lomonosov, a founder of the Russian science was intimately connected with the formation and development of the higher scientific establishment of Russia (the forties-the first half of the sixties of the 18th century are often called "the Lomonosov period"). The second work was published to the 250th birth anniversary of the scientist.

As early as 1980 the Lomonosov Museum set to work on preparation and creation of the Lomonosov Encyclopedia as the first one from a list of personal encyclopedias devoted to great national scientists. The problem was not resolved for various reasons, and the corporate authors actually ceased to exist. However, the Lomonosov Museum did not reject this idea in principle and decided that it was possible and necessary on the first stage to create a brief encyclopedic dictionary based on the preserved material to the 275th anniversary of the Academy of Sciences. According to editor and compiler Karpeev, such dictionary can be "a guide to Lomonosov".

As explained by Karpeev, striving prevailed for providing the reader with possibility "to see a vivid personality in

Lomonosov and to explain to himself the beginnings of his genius, for trivial perception came to work myths about him, which, as known, happen to be more long-lived than 'darkness of dark truths', and it also did not bring nearer to understanding of Lomonosov and his role in the Russian culture". The dictionary ends with a feature article, in which Karpeev "tried to create a psychological portrait of Lomonosov with all his merits and demerits".

"Chronicle of Lomonosov's life and creative work" was published in 1961 by the corporate authors including Chenakal (head), Andreeva, Pavlova and Sokolova under the editorship of Topchiev, Figurovsky and Chenakal. "Chronicle", prepared by the Institute of History of Natural Science and Technology of the USSR Academy of Sciences, as distinct from the vast amount of published earlier material, including Lomonosov's collected works, is a work which presents a complete and accurate chronological sequence of events connected with the life, creative work and social activity of the scientist. All available publications were revised and assessed with the aim of referring them to the reliable or doubtful sources. Studied and assessed were not only all literature about him known at that date, but also documents kept both in the Archives of the USSR Academy of Sciences and in other archives, including foreign, and also in museums and libraries.

A major portion of the works is devoted to the scientist's career. Among the academic publications mention may be made, for example, of "Life History of Mikhail Lomonosov" by Menshutin, "Material for Lomonosov's Biography" by Bilyarsky, "Lomonosov. Pathway to Man-

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hood. 1711-1741" by Morozovand "Eternal Honor of the Great Deed" (brief biography of Lomonosov) by Karpeev. In this category of publications particular emphasis is placed upon the well-illustrated book "Mikhail Lomonosov (1711-1765)" by Pavlova and Fedorova produced by Nauka Publishers in 1986 for the 275th birth anniversary of the scientist in the academic series "Scientific Biography Literature" (founded in 1959). The primary objective of this series at its foundation was defined as serving the wide interests of readers in the biography literature as a whole and in biographies of outstanding personalities of the national and world science and technology in particular. The editorial board at the time of the book publication was headed by its long-time chairman academician Alexander Yanshin, and academician Yevgeny Velikhov was its executive editor. The person of singular activity Zinaida Sokolovskaya, Doctor of History has been the academic secretary of the editorial board for many years to the present day. Based on a vast material on the history of science of the 18th century, the book discloses Lomonosov's biography and his versatile talent as a scientist, writer and painter. The role of Lomonosov in the development of Russian and world science is described, and the effect of his ideas on the succeeding generations of the national scientists is traced.

The most comprehensive group of academic publications reflects the role of Lomonosov in the origination and development of special fields and branches of science and his contribution to one or another type of activity. Among them there are "Lomonosov and Russian Literature", "Lomonosov and Educational Activities of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences" by Kulyabko, "Lomonosov and the Petersburg Academy of Sciences" by Radovsky, "Chemical Laboratory of Lomonosov. Chemistry in the Petersburg

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Academy of Sciences in the second half of the 18th century" by Raskin, "Petersburg Academy of Sciences and Lomonosov (Series "History of Our Homeland")" by Kurmachev, "Lomonosov and Art Glass" by Danilevsky, "Lomonosov and Old Russian Literature" by Moiseev, "Lomonosov (Iconography Experience)" by Glinka, "Russian Culture and Lomonosov: for the 300th Birth Anniversary" by Karpeev, "Lomonosov as Astronomer and Astrophysicist" by Kulikovsky, "Lomonosov's Works on Natural and Historic Sciences", "Lomonosov's Works on Chemistry and Physics" by Menshutkin, "Lomonosov's Mosaics 'Poltava Battle'" by Bunin and many others.

Many a book on Lomonosov's creative work were produced by the academic publishing house, including "Literary Work of Lomonosov. Research and Material", "Lomonosov and Modern Styles and Rhetoric" and "Poetic Style of Lomonosov" by Serman and "Creative Development of Lomonosov" by Kuznetsov.

A large body of bibliographic literature including that related to Lomonosov's library and archives was published by the Academy of Sciences in different periods of time. Among the academic publications worthy of mention are the following books: "Mikhail Lomonosov. Index of Main Scientific Literature" (compiled by Korovin), "Bibliography of Lomonosov's Works and Literature About Him for 1951-1955" by Korovin and Ryss, "Bibliography of Lomonosov's Works and Literature About Him for 1956-1960" by Ryss, "Lomonosov's Manuscripts in the USSR Academy of Sciences. Scientific Description" (compiled by Modzalevsky), "Lomonosov's Library" by Korovin, "Fate of Lomonosov's Library and Archives" by Kulyabko and Beshenkovsky.

Widely known are works on the history of publishing Lomonosov's various works and his stay in different cities and establishments and also memoirs of his contemporaries about him and his activities, which reflect the scientist's works in the Russian and foreign literature, and many other publications.

The topics "Lomonosov and Science", "Lomonosov and Literature" and "Lomonosov and Culture" are rich. Such topic in the study and description of a many-sided activity of the scientist as "Lomonosov: Book and Book Culture" grows in favor. As a recognized man of culture he, alongside creation of the national scientific basis and carrying out research in various departments of knowledge, paid special attention to advancement of education in Russia. Lomonosov's activity was directed in many ways to development of the book industry, improvement of book publishing and distribution, which was reflected in special literature. The scientist's role and importance of his works can be rightfully considered today also in terms of the formation and development of the book culture of the 18th century.

The contribution made by Lomonosov to the development of science, culture and education in Russia and his influence on their formation in the social environment cannot be overemphasized. Therefore, he can be recognized surely also as an outstanding man of the national book culture of the 18th century.


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Явив человечеству антропный принцип, наука страшится довести его применение до логического предела, поскольку в нем она превращается в религию. Боясь в ней исчезнуть, наука боится сияния Истины: в нем, Мир реальный являющем, два сих — одно.
Catalog: Философия 
13 days ago · From Олег Ермаков

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