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by Alexei SISSAKIAN, Director of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna

The Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) was set up in line with the Agreement signed in Moscow on March 26, 1956, by government representatives of eleven constituent countries (Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, GDR, China, North Korea, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, USSR, Czechoslovakia) with the aim of pooling their scientific and material potential in studying the basic characteristics of matter. In September 1956 the Democratic Republic of Vietnam joined up, to be followed by the Republic of Cuba in 1976. Nuclear physicists from all the participant countries flocked to Dubna, the hometown of JINR. Dubna became an international town.

However, the nuclear research center established at the confluence of two rivers, the Dubna and the Volga northwest of Moscow, had a previous record of history. In the late 1940s the then obscure community became the place where the world's largest particle accelerator, the synchrophasotron, was commissioned for basic research into the physics of high-energy elementary particles and atomic nuclei. Its construction was launched on the initiative of a group of Soviet physicists with Acad. Igor Kurchatov at the head, for which purpose the first laboratory was set up there in 1947. Up until 1953 for security reasons it was attached to the Institute for Nuclear Energy and was known as the Hydrotechnical Laboratory of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR; subsequently it was accorded a status of an independent research center, the Institute for Nuclear Problems of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR.

Meanwhile the town of Dubna kept expanding. In 1951 another research body was founded there, the Electro-physical Laboratory of the USSR Academy of Sciences where a research team headed by Vladimir Wexler (elected to the Academy of Sciences in 1958) began work on building a new synchrophasotron, a high-energy <10 GeV accelerator, with record beam energy parameters for those times*. This grandiose setup commissioned in 1957 - the same year as the world's first artificial satellite of the earth, the sputnik**, was launched into orbit-became a hallmark of Soviet science.

Thus the two Dubna-based research bodies became our launching pad in studying a broad spectrum of trends in nuclear physics and problems in which research centers of the JINR member states had an interest.

The Moscow-held conference of March 1956, in which delegates of the JINR member states took part, elected Dmitry Blokhintsev the Institute's first director-who had been in charge of the construction of the world's first atomic power station put into service in 1954 (at Obninsk, the Kaluga region); in 1958 Dmitry Blokhintsev became corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Professors Marian Danysz and Vaclav Votruba were elected JINR vice-directors.

The JINR statutes were endorsed on the 23rd December of 1956 at the first session of the Committee of the Plenipotentiary Representatives of the member states; in the

See: S. Kulinich, "The International Research Nuclear Center", Science in the USSR, No. 2, 1981. - Ed.

** See: V. Senkevich, "Russian Cosmonautics at the Turn of Two Centuries", Science in Russia, No. 1, 2001. - Ed.

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revised edition the statutes were signed on June 23, 1992. Accordingly, JINR exercises its activities on the principles of openness for participation of all interested states, and their parity, mutually advantageous cooperation.

JINR's history is tightly linked with the names of such eminent researchers and science organizers as Nikolai Bogoliubov, Igor Tamm, and Alexander Topchiev (USSR); Leopold Infeld, Henrick Newodniczanski, Choria Hulubei, Laios Janosi, among others. Taking part in JINR's development as a major research center were the outstanding physicists and science managers of many countries: Alexander Baldin, Dmitry Blokhintsev, Van Ganchan, Vladimir Wexler, Nikolai Govorun, Marian Gmitro, Venedict Dzhelepov, Ivo Zvara, Ivan Zlatev, Dezhe Kis, Norbert Kroo, Jan Korzecznik, Carl Lanius, Le Van Thiem, Anatoly Logunov, Moisei Markov, Viktor Matveev, Mikhail Meshcheryakov, Georgi Nadjakov, Nguen Van Hieu, Yuri Oganesian, Lenard Pahl, Heints Pose, Bruno Pontecorvo, Vladislav Sarantsev, Namsarain Sodnom, Ryczard Sosnowski, Aureliu Sandulescu, Albert Tavkhelidze, Ivan Todorov, Ivan Ulegla, Ion Ursu, Georgi Flerov, Ylya Frank, Christo Christov, Andrzej Xrzynkiewicz, Sherban Tsitseika, Fedor Schapiro, Dmitry Shirkov, Jerzy Janik, among many others. Their names are borne by Dubna's streets and avenues.

JINR is a unique international scientific organization in the scope of its research, though not the first one on the world map. The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) had come into being in Geneva, Switzerland, about two years before. Its aim was to consolidate efforts of West European countries in studying fundamental properties of matter.* This event speeded up the formation of our Institute as a body unifying the scientific potential of East European countries and some states in East Asia. In fact, one of the first documents referred to JINR as the Eastern Institute for Nuclear Research.

One came to realize that none of the areas of basic science was compatible in high costs with nuclear physics, and that there was little, if any, prospect in developing this sphere of knowledge single-handedly. All the more so since nuclear physics is a generator of fresh ideas, it stimulates many other natural sciences and technological progress in general.

Succeeding in obtaining accelerated proton bunches at the <10 GeV synchrophasotron, the nuclear physicists of Dubna could get down to a search for new elementary particles and the still unknown laws of the tantalizing energy microworld. Dubna scientists worked with great abandon and ingenuity in one-of-a-kind fields reported in the press as "the world's firsts".**

Thus, the International Conference on High-Energy Physics held in Kiev in 1959 (that is only two years after the launching of our synchrophasotron) could see our first results on the birth characteristics of strange particles in pion(pi-meson)-nucleon interactions at energies above 6 GeV In their communications Vladimir Wexler, Van Ganchan and M. Soloviev reported about the discovery of the now commonly known law of conservation of the baryonic charge of "heavy" elementary particles (with hyperon (superproton) nucleons and t-particles among them) and about new data on the characteristics of Ξ-minus hyperons, antiprotons and anti-λ hyperons generated in the above interactions.

At the Rochester conference held at Berkeley (California, USA) in 1960 the selfsame group of physicists announced-for the first time ever again!-about the discovery of instances of multiple formation of strange particles (two and more simultaneously)-such particles also include K-mesons (Kaons), hyperons (superprotons), among others. There came other "firsts" as well: on the phenomenon of the expanding cross-section for the formation of K-mesons and Ξ-minus hyperons with the energy of bombarding pions, and also on cases of the formation and decay of a new antiparticle, the anti-Σ-minus hyperon. That was a triumph of Dubna's scientists.

A year later, at another CERN-held conference, the same group of nuclear physicists presented the first data on the abundant production of resonances in which strange particles were found to be implicated; also, on the heretofore unknown resonance of f° (98(У)-meson decav-

See: L. Smirnova, "Stepping into the Twenty-First Century", Science in Russia, No. 1, 1996. - Ed.

** See: V. Kadyshevsky, "No National Borders for Science", Science in Russia, No. 3, 1996. - Ed.

Pages. 72

ing into two short-lived neutral Kaons (K-mesons). This phenomenon was entered into world data tables on particles with reference to the work of the team of JINR's High-Energy Laboratory.

Meanwhile JINR kept up work on innovative techniques, including the world's first major Itydrogen and propane-freon chambers, particle separators, and the like. In time our synchrophasotron was converted to an accelerator of relativistic nuclei. It was at this setup that polarized deuterons were accelerated to record-high energies of 4.5 GeV per nucleon.

One of the first themes addressed at Dubna dealt with the study into the structure of radioactive nuclei obtained through irradiating targets of different substances by protons at the synchrophasotron. These studies were carried out by an international research team at our scientific-experimental section involved with nuclear spectroscopy and radiochemistry (Laboratory of Nuclear Problems). The long-lived isotopes thus obtained were sent for further studies to Warsaw, Dresden, Krakow, Prague, Leningrad, Moscow, Kiev, Tashkent, Tbilisi and also to other research centers of countries not affiliated with JINR.

The world's first pulsed neutron reactor IBR (high-voltage charged particle accelerator) developed at the Neutron Physics Laboratory of JINR became a mecca for nuclear physicists from JINR member countries. Many scientists from Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, the German Democratic Republic, North Korea, Mongolia and other countries worked at it as visiting researchers. Subsequently large groups of experimentalists flocked in with a kit of instruments and devices of their own.

Perhaps one of the brightest examples of international cooperative effort can be seen in the unique pulsed neutron reactor, the IBR-2, designed and built by research centers and enterprises of Hungary, Poland, Romania and the Soviet Union. Commissioned in 1984, IBR-2 gave mighty impetus to studies on the physics of condensed

Pages. 73

media by means of neutron scattering.* A new form of collaboration involving IBR-2 was ushered in: physicists of any country could table proposals on experiments at setups operating on the reactor's beams. A panel of experts was to examine and evaluate such proposals. Its recommendations were binding for execution, and at the specified time the author ad the Laboratory's experts could conduct the scheduled experiments. Thereupon the author(s) carried on further work at home institutions and kept in touch with our people via modern high-speed communication media.

In the 1970s and 1980s research centers and enterprises of the JINR member states made a substantial contribution in developing experimental equipment for the cyclotron U-400. Working jointly with research scientists of the Institute of Nuclear Physics (Bucharest, Romania), they prepared a RFP for a Romania-based system of transporting the cyclotron's beams. Meanwhile the Institute for Nuclear Research at Swerk (Poland) developed a receiver for the observation and identification of charged particles in the focal plane of the MSP-144 magnetic spectrometer. Thereby the JINR countries were able to build a large experimental setup PHOBOS and other units at our Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, still being used for experiments.

It would be in place to recall yet another "on-the-tip-of-the-pen" discovery: after so many long and futile attempts of high-energy physicists to identify the so-called top-quark (the sixth, last and the heaviest in this family of particles), a group of theoretical, "pure" physicists predicted a rather narrow range of mass values where the to-quark had to be searched for. Prominent in this tea were scientists of the N. N. Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics (LTP) at Dubna. This very particle was located by experimentalists of the Fermi national Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in the United States. Recently our researchers jointly with their counterparts at Fermilab determined the top-quark's mass, the most accurate result in world practice. It should be stressed that the present quark model is inconceivable without the fundamental works of Dubna theorists: the color quark hypothesis, "the quark bag", etc. (Nikolai Bogoliubov, Albert Tavkhelidze, Viktor Matveev, among others).

Many nuclear research centers of the JINR countries owe much to Dubna with its experimental base and large nuclear physics setups. We are going on with the joint project of a cyclotron for Slovakia; and in December 2003 the Collegium of the Ministry of the Power Industry and Natural Resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan in Astana (the new capital of Kazakhstan) and the L. N. Gumilev Eurasian National University approved a joint project for establishing an Interdisciplinary Research Complex on the basis of the DC-60 heavy ions accelerator developed at JINR.

The late 1980s and early 1990s were hard times to us. The perestroika (the country's political and economic restructuring), the breakup of the USSR and of the socialist community, drastic sociopolitical changes and the harsh economic crisis that hit most of the member states put JINR on the brink of disaster. Yet it survived, owing above all to the top level of its theoretical and experimental studies, the venerable traditions of its scientific schools, its unique research base and the selfless dedication of its scientists, experts and workers. In that transition period the JINR Board of Directors with Acad. Vladimir Kadyshevsky at the head accomplished a great deal toward preserving Dubna as a unique research center, in sustaining its international ties, and for further progress of its scientific-technical cooperation.

Of exceptional importance for our Institute was the Agreement Law adopted on January 2, 2000, On Ratification of the Agreement Between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research Concerning the Residence and Conditions of Activity of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in the Russian Federation. This law outlined conditions which Russia pledged to abide by so as to make JINR activities productive and fruitful. Thereby legal guarantees were

See: V. Aksenov, "Pulsed Nuclear Reactor", Science in Russia, No. 6, 2002. - Ed.

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reaffirmed to us in compliance with the commonly accepted international standards.

It became clear to us at this stage that collaboration of the JINR member states should move into a qualitatively new phase. This collaboration should be to mutual advantage, and based on the real possibilities of the states involved. These are the underlying principles in the activity of our Institute that determine its strategy, development prospects and priority areas of research.

JINR's membership comprises 18 countries. They are: the Azerbaijanian Republic; the Republic of Armenia; the Republic of Byelorussia; the Republic of Bulgaria; the Socialist Republic of Vietnam; Georgia; the Republic of Kazakhstan; the Democratic People's Republic of Korea; the Republic of Cuba; the Republic of Moldova; the Republic of Poland; the Russian Federation; Romania; the Slovak Republic; the Republic of Uzbekistan; Ukraine; and the Czech Republic. Cooperation agreements have been signed on the inter-government level between JINR and Germany, Hungary, Italy and South Africa.

JINR still keeps on as a genuinely international research center. Its highest body is the Committee of Plenipotentiary Representatives of all the eighteen member countries. It considers the JINR budget, plans for research work and capital construction as well as admission of other states to JINR membership.

JINR scientific policies are chartered by the Learned Council that comprises senior scientists of the member states, CERN, Germany, Italy, USA, France, Greece, Belgium, the Netherlands, India and other countries.

The JINR's standing executive body is its Directorate (Board of Directors) elected by the Committee of Plenipotentiary Representatives. Leading specialists of the JINR member states are elected to top managerial posts.

Ever since its birth JINR has carried out a broad spectrum of research and prepared top-skilled personnel for the member countries, including many research scientists holding the leading positions in science. Their number includes presidents of national academies of sciences as well as heads of major colleges and universities.

Our Institute runs eight laboratories, each capable of measuring up with a major research center; about 6,000 people are on our staff, including 1,200 senior scientists: full and corresponding members of national academies of sciences, over 260 holders of doctorate and 630 M. Sc. (Candidate of Sciences) degrees. We have about 2,000 engineering and technical personnel in our ranks. Add to this dozens of winners of international and national prizes.

Our Laboratory of Theoretical Physics (LTP) is one of the world's largest centers of basic research in particle physics and in the quantum field theory, in nuclear physics and in the physics of condensed media. Hands-on research is happily combined with the effective backing of experiments. LTP scientists are distinguished for a wide scope of their interests, bright ideas and stringent mathematical approaches. LTP sees as an important part of its activities to foster cooperation with the JINR member states and to recruit young talents, college and university undergraduates and graduates among them.

JINR has always been active in experimental research in the field of elementary-particle physics. The birth and interaction of elementary particles is the straight way toward cognition of the structure of mater. Physicists of the Laboratory of Particle Physics (LPP) and of the Dzhelepov Laboratory of Nuclear Problems (LNP) are conducting experiments in this area at Dubna and elsewhere - at CERN with its giant accelerators, at the Institute of High-Energy Physics (Protvino, Russia), the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Batavia, USA), the Brookhaven National Laboratory (Apton, USA), DESY (Hamburg, Germany). Thus a new form of cooperation among research collectives of different countries is born-"physics at a distance', which allows to draw in research teams unable to fend for themselves in experimenting at the world's largest particle accelerators.

Thus, the Dzhelepov Laboratory of Nuclear Problems (LNP) is among the world's leading centers working in the

Pages. 75

field of high, intermediate and low energies. It zeroes in on particle physics, nuclear structure, including relativistic nuclear physics and nuclear spectroscopy; it is likewise involved with the characteristics of condensed media, new accelerators, biological and medicobiological studies at the Dubna phasotrons. Today the LNP's alumni head research collectives at Protvino near Moscow and Gatchina (south of St. Petersburg), they are in charge of research centers, large labs and colleges in Belarus, Georgia, Uzbekistan and elsewhere in other countries.

The Wexler and Baldin Laboratory of High-Energy Physics (LHEP) is an accelerator center for conducting top-on-the-agenda research in a beam energies range where a transition occurs from the effects of the nucleonic structure of the nucleus to the signatures of the asymptotic behavior of characteristics involved in its interactions. This laboratory is cooperating with CERN, the physics research centers of Russia, USA, Federal Germany, Japan, India, Egypt and other countries, which is by no means accidental: LHEP has a success story of 9 major discoveries in these last fifty years. It incubated the idea of a new special-purpose superconducting accelerator, the Nucletron, with the aim of realizing a research program in relativistic nuclear physics. The Nuclotron, which is the only superconducting accelerator for nuclei and heavy ions operating in Russia, was commissioned in 1993. Late in 1999, with the completion of the work on a slow beam extraction system, it became possible to extract the first beam of accelerated protons.

Today the Nuclotron is one-of-a-kind complex capable of extracting in just one year a large number of beams (from protons to iron nuclei) for experiments, and it can satisfy such conditions as high-precision energy change, a required level of intensity, long-term protraction and homogeneity of the temporal structure of the extracted beams and their profile required for experiments.

Another research laboratory, the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (LNR) is concentrating on the synthesis of heavy and superheavy elements and is involved with studying heir physical and chemical properties. In the past five years LNR has synthesized 17 isotopes of new chemical elements with atomic numbers from 112 to 118.* It became possible to observe dozens of events of the decay of new superheavy nuclei after a substantial upgrading of the accelerators in service and of experimental techniques. Today our Institute is the world leader in the synthesis of superheavy nuclei, and has added to the Mendeleev Periodic Table the newly synthesized elements with the atomic numbers 113, 115, 116, 118. By awarding the name "Dubnium" to element 105 of the periodic table in 1997, the International Committee of Pure and Applied Chemistry noted the achievements of JINR's research staff.

The Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics (LNP) is an active member of the world community of neutron physicists. It studies physical phenomena in solid bodies and liquids as well new characteristics of materials. Its staff carries out theoretical and experimental studies of high-temperature superconductivity, of compounds with complex structures-which is of particular importance to biology, chemistry and pharmacology. LNP's innovative projects have made their way into world science for further studies. Here we might as well mention research into the characteristics of ultracold netrons, the effects caused by the disturbance of spatial parity in neutron resonances, the influence of magnetic fields on the structure of matter, and the use of small-angle methods.

See: Ye. Molchanov, "Searching for 'Islands of Stability'", Science in Russia, No. 3, 1999. - Ed.

Pages. 76

Information technology computer grids and computing physics are yet another mainstream trend. This is the domain of the Laboratory of Information Technologies set up by Mikhail Meshcheryakov (1910 - 1994), Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Its research personnel makes a close study of the latest in computer hard- and software. It copes with much success with the main objective-bringing up-to-date telecommunication networks and grids within reach of theorists and experimentalists.

Another laboratory of ours, the Laboratory of Particle Physics (LPP), was established in 1988 for experimental studies at the world's foremost accelerators. Its research program involves centers of the JINR member countries, thus enabling them to pool intellectual and material resources and make a tangible contribution to international projects.

Our youngest laboratory, the Laboratory of Radiation Biology (LRB), was founded in 2005 on the basis of the Department of Radiation and Radiobiology Studies. It applies nuclear physics methods for looking into mechanisms implicated the interaction of ionizing radiation with matter, with corresponding setups being used for conducting most intriguing radiobiological experiments.* Dubna's radiobiologists have a record of achievements highly appreciated by the world scientific community. Thus, the 19th European Conference on Radiation Biology held in Prague in 1985 heard a communication on the effect of radiations on living cells, a theory first postulated by our radiobiologists. Thereupon scientists of the Netherlands, Germany and other countries voiced a desire to forge cooperation with JINR on a give-and-take basis.

JINR offers excellent opportunities to young talents. In 1992 Dubna opened a Science Study Center for senior college and university students majoring in nuclear physics. This project involves the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Lomonosov Moscow State University)** and the Moscow State Institute of Radio Engineering, Electronics

See: L. Shirshov, "Proton Theory of Tumors", Science in Russia, No. 4, 2002. - Ed.

** See: M. Panasiuk, E. Romanovsky, "From Hypotheses to Discoveries", Science in Russia, No. 6, 1995. - Ed.

Pages. 77

and Automatics. The enrollment classes complete their education here and have practicals at JINR's laboratories. Besides, they write their graduation papers under the supervision of our senior physicists. JINR also runs a postgraduate study course. Its enrollment includes students from CIS (Community of Independent States) countries, formerly constituent Soviet republics, and also from Poland, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Germany and other countries; besides, our Science Study Center runs annual practical work courses at our setups. We are doing our best for supporting students. For one, by the UNESCO grant obtained within the framework of a JINR-UNESCO accord for financing practicals and research studies at Dubna for two months. The beneficiaries of these work-study programs have been 18 young physicists of Armenia, Georgia, Belarus, Poland and Russia.

In 1994 at the initiative of the JINR directorate and with the active involvement of the Moscow regional administration and of the Dubna town authority we founded a "Dubna" International University of Nature, Society and Man.

In these fifty years of its life JINR has always been a bridge between East and West by promoting broad international cooperation in the scientific and technological spheres. We are in touch with 700 research centers and universities in 60 countries. Only in Russia, which is our biggest partner, we are maintaining friendly ties with as many as 150 research centers, universities, industrial enterprises and firms in 40 cities.

We are maintaining parity contacts with IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), UNESCO, the European Physical Society, and the Trieste-based International Center of Theoretical Physics. Each years over a thousand physicists come to Dubna, and those from developing countries are granted scholarships.

Our cooperation with research centers of France and Italy is marked by a wide scope of joint projects. Back in 1957 Dubna played host to Frederick Joliot-Curie (Nobel prizewinner, elected foreign member of the USSR Academy in 1947). He is commemorated in the name of Dubna's main street. The French Commisariat a l'energie atomique showed interest in us and we hosted its haul commissaire (high commissioner), Monsieur Perrain, at Dubna. In 1972 JINR and the French National Institute of Physics of the Nucleus and Elementary Particles signed a Protocol on Cooperation. In 1992 we signed a new, general agreement on our further collaboration. Incidentally, one of the streets of Cannes, France, is now known as l'Avenue de Doubna in honor of our fruitful scientific contacts with le Laboratoire National GANIL (Large National Accelerator of Heavy Ions) located in this city. Our joint research projects on the boundaries of stability and light exotic nuclei merited a special grant from the French government in 1994, and it was prolonged for yet another three years. But we did not stop there: we agreed on the division of labor between the Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (LNR) and GANIL- LNR was to focus on the synthesis of superheavy elements, while GANIL was to handle exotic nuclei. Our joint research teams are working at Dubna and at Cannes alike.

Today our and Italian physicists are closely involved with the international project BOREXINO for measuring a flux of solar neutrinos and studying the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations with the use of a low-background detector equipped with a liquid scinillator, a unit built in the underground laboratory at Gran Sasso (Italy). A Dubna team has contributed much in developing a prototype of this setup and in evaluating the first results. In 2000 the joint Protocol on Scientific-Technical Cooperation between the Italian Republic and the Russian Federation

Pages. 78

accorded a first priority to the project, and in 2003 it was upgraded to a rank of all-important experiments.

Since the 1970s, in the wake of the first personal scientific contacts with American physicists, JINR has been forging closer contacts with US national research centers. This stage was ushered in by a visit to Dubna in 1969 by Glenn Seaborg, then Chairman of the US Atomic Energy Commission. In 1972, when the Batavia-based Fermilab was turning its accelerator on a condition, American physicists invited our colleagues to take part in their first experiments. By that time Dubna had built an original hydrogen gas target which subsequently came to be adopted at leading research centers of the United States and Europe. Our American partners are actively cooperating with us: a large international collective-Dubna physicists, too-are working on a number major projects at the Fermilab's proton accelerator, the TEVATRON.

JINR is keeping extensive ties with over 70 American laboratories and universities, including the Brookhaven and Livertor national laboratories.

For decades JINR has been productively cooperating with CERN. Set up half a century ago within a year and a half of each other, these two centers never stopped cooperating even in the gloomiest times of the Cold War. They carried out dozens of joint experiments. The first one, NA-4 (on nonshape-elastic scattering of muons), was conducted in a collaborative effort of Bologna-CERN-Munich-Saclay (BCMS). We manufactured a core for a 50-meter magnet and a set of 80 aligned chambers. In addition, our physicists contributed a good deal to this experiment from A to Z, from a RFP to evaluation of the first results.

JINR is participating in 27 major projects of CERN, including four at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC): ATLAS, GMS and ALICE. All that will enable us to probe deep into matter and unlock the mysteries of the universe (conditions of the primordial universe will be simulated, 10"21 s after the Big Bang); thereby we may unravel one of the key enigmas of physics-What is weight? That will mean a big qualitative leap for the scientific world outlook, for technology and engineering. The LHC, built in an underground tunnel with a 27 km ring, will accelerate two colliding beam lines. Four giant, most sophisticated setups will be placed at their intersection points. These facilities will be onstream in 2007. Since over a billion collisions (encounters) will occur per second, we can imagine what an avalanche of information will be showered on physicists.

With the aid of its supercomputer center JINR is taking part in establishing a Russian regional center for data processing from LHC, a center that will become a component part of the HEP EU-GRID project of the European Union.

JINR and CERN sponsor the joint exhibition "Science Helps Bring Nations Together" which has been a success in Oslo, Paris, Geneva, Brussels, Moscow, Bucharest, Dubna, Erevan and Salonika.

JINR scientists are regular guests to many international and national scientific conferences. Schools for young scientists are a good new tradition. The summer meetings on "Methods of Nuclear Physics and Accelerators in Biology and Medicine" have been held with much success for the third year in succession.

Every year JINR sends more than 1,500 articles and reports (authored and co-authored by 3,000 scientists) to the editorial boards of many journals and the organizing committees of conferences. In fact, JINR is steadily among the leading five research centers and schools of Russia in the number of annual publications (and in other integral indicators, too).

A session of the JINR Committee of Plenipotentiary Representatives has passed a decision on backing a draft program for a special economic zone of the " Dubna" technopark that could be implemented in private-federal partnership within the framework of ongoing reforms and fully in agreement with the interests of the JINR member states. This zone, open to people with good ideas and having material possibilities for supporting advantageous and promising projects, will be of much benefit to our Naukograd, or Science Town. It will help draw in the much needed investments. The Federal Law On Special Economic Zones in the Russian Federation adopted in 2005 likewise contributes to that. In a competition announced by the federal government, Dubna has merited a long overdue technology advancement status. Our town, the site of Russia's only international and intergovernmental research center, will offer advantages to all the JINR member countries as well as broad opportunities for cooperation with our colleagues-research centers of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Rosatom federal atomic agency, and also with partners in industry and business.

For 50 years now the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna has been developing apace as a large multidimensional international center that has married fundamental theoretical and experimental quests, the development and advancement of the latest in technologies, and university education.



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