In March 2005 the newspaper "Dalnevostochny Ucheny" (Scienist of the Far East) published an article on a global belt of oil and gas accumulations in the Jurassic deposits of the Northern Hemisphere. It stressed the importance of switching the attention of specialists prospecting for oil from the deposits on the shelf zone of the Island of Sakhalin where they are found in sedimentary layers of Neogenic age formed some 25 mn years ago, to the continental zones of the Far East-Priamurye and Zabaikalye*. There are both direct and indirect signs of oil and gas deposits there in the stratigraphic slit of Mesozoic deposits of the Jurassic period with the age of 195 - 137 mn years. Continued studies of the regions of propagation of the latter in the Northern Hemisphere established a clearly expressed regularity of the location of coal, oil and gas deposits. This produced the hypothesis about the existence of a common belt of deposits of carbohydrate raws. And it seemingly includes all coal-mining countries of Western Europe, Asia and North America.
The spatial location of the Jurassic giant belt becomes clear after paleological and paleogeographic reconstruction with the calculation of the coordinates of the geographic and
* See: N. Bogdanov, "Russia's Shelf, Its Riches", Science in Russia, No. 4, 2003. - Ed.
magnetic poles of the Earth which, we know, shifted repeatedly during the many geological periods of the development of the planet.
Some 600 mn years ago the geographical North Pole was on the territory of present-day Australia and 350 mn years ago it shifted into the region of the Islands of Japan. Russian scientist A. Khramov and his associates established that in the Jurassic period the geographical belt in the area where the Kamchatka joins the European mainland. Paleomagnetic data about the position of the Pole during that period have been described by Dr. Pyotr Ivashov of the Khabarovsk Institute of Water and Ecological Problems of the RAS Far Eastern Branch. He published a monograph on the continental Jurassic deposits of the north-eastern part of the Russian platform ("Kontinentalnye Yurskie Otlozhenya Severo-Vostoka Russkoi Platformy" M., NAUKA, 1981).
The migration of the magnetic poles of the Earth is traced by a method based on the measurements of the residue magnetism of minerals. The special coincidence of the geographic and magnetic poles in the Jurassic period has been verified by our Russian scientists and scientists of China, Thailand and other countries of South-East Asia. This made it possible to establish the locations of the paleoladscape-climatic zones in relation to the obtained coordinates of 163 - 167 E.L. and 59 N.L. The northern border of the belt passes along the 75th parallel passes along the 75th parallel relative to the Jurassic North Pole. Prof. Ivashov pointed out that it "passes through the region of the Novosibirsk Islands in the Arctic Ocean, the middle flow of the Aldan River, the lower flow of the Amur, the Sakhalin Island, the Kuriles and on across the Pacific and along the cost of Alaska".
The southern border of the belt passes approximately along the 20th parallel and through the territories of England, Belgium, Romania, Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, Thailand, the Island of Kalimantan and New Guinea. The calculated parameters of the paleobelt coincide with the paleolandscapes of the humid subtropics whose rich flora and fauna provided the "initial material" for the formation of the deposits of coal, oil and gas in the continental Jurassic sediments of great thickness. Scientists point out that deposits can also be located also in the Jurassic marine sediments which are up to 7,000 m thick because of the presence there of oil-and-gas generating forms of organic matter in the form of zoo and phytoplankton.
The idea about the global belt of coal-and-gas accumulations in the Jurassic sediments of the Northern Hemisphere was originally expressed by Prof. P. Ivashov in a collection of scientific works published by the Lomonosov Moscow State University in 1979. But it was only in 1991 that a Far Eastern geophysical expedition finally discovered gas deposits of industrial size in the Verkhnebureinsky Region of the Khabarovsk Territory. A well drilled there discovered in the Jurassic layers three gas-bearing strata at depth of 360 to 1,000 m. The size of the raw, as calculated for only the first well, were estimated at 5 bn m3 (similar discoveries were also made in the bordering regions of Mongolia and China. The discovery of that deposit located in favorable geological conditions and economically advantageous geographical situation, made it possible to reconsider the concept of the energy development of the whole of the Far East, that is try and do without building atomic electric stations there.
Calculations on the parameters of the paleobelt were conducted at the Institute of Water and Ecological Problems of the RAS Far Eastern Branch. On their basis Prof. P. Ivashov made a report in 2001 at the 2001 scientific conference on "The Fundamental Problems of Geology and Tectonics of Northern Eurasia". It marked the 90th anniversary of the outstanding Soviet geologist, Acad. Alexander Yanshin. Back in the past he prognosticated the existence of a new oil-and-gas-bearing province in the Yano-Indigirskaya expression on the cost of the Laptev Sea and the Eastern Siberian Sea. The report aroused strong interest among scientists of the RAS Siberian Branch. It was noted that both the continental and marine sedimentary formations of the Jurassic deposits of the Far East of Russia are promising in terms of discoveries of oil and gas deposits in them and must be priority areas of geological explorations and explorations for oil and gas.
Dalnevostochny Ucheny, 2005
Prepared by O. NESTERENKO
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