Libmonster ID: RU-17298
Author(s) of the publication: By Ihor DOLHOV

By Ihor Dolhov, Ukraine's Ambassador Extraordinary and Ple-nipotentiary to the Republic of Turkey

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The recent years in Ukrainian history were especially eventful. Among the milestones are the 10th Anniversary of the country's Independence, and the fifth jubilee of the Constitution of Ukraine being adopted. With due respect to these momentous dates, one should also give another thought to the less significant but, nevertheless, events also highly important and remarkable.

It is ten years on January 3, 2003, since the Embassy of Ukraine was opened in the Republic of Turkey. By making a short excursion into the past one may notice that during this historically insignificant period the two neighboring countries have succeeded not only to develop extensive contacts in every sphere of life, but also to raise to level of constructive partnership in mutual relations. Behind this evolution, there are years of extensive work of numerous relevant institutions and departments in addition to Foreign Ministries and diplomatic representations of both countries. The passport to success, however, became the political will of the leaderships of both states that, having appreciated the true perspectives of partnership, adequately directed the development of bilateral relations.

Celebrations commemorating the anniversary are another opportunity to summarize what had been done so far and to assess the present-day status and perspectives of cooperation between Ukraine and Turkey.

During the recent years the Ukraine-Turkey dialogue became more dynamic and enriched in content, as well as widened its scope considerably. The relations between the countries on the world arena within the present geopolitical realities serve as a sign of Ukraine

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and Turkey having much in common. Both countries cooperate fruitfully within the frames of such organizations as the UN, Council of Europe, OSCE, Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation, as well as maintaining good partnership relations with Turkey as a NATO member.

The results of such cooperation is evidencing that both countries are reliable partners with their joint participation in the European integration processes being steps concurrent and interactive in common direction.

Along centuries the fate of relations between these two peoples took shape differently ranging from fierce battles and military confrontation in ancient times to the present- day good neighborhood and partnership. Ivan Mazepa and Sultan Ahmet; founders of Ukrainian and Turkish states correspondingly Mykhailo Hrushevsky and Kemal Ataturk; Talat Pasha, who in 1914 stepped up with an unprecedented declaration in support of Ukraine's independence; and, at last, the glorious Haseki Hurrem (also known as Roxolana), whose tender hand restrained Ottoman Empire from invading Ukraine, are all too far from being a complete list of political protagonists that made the history of Ukraine-Turkey ties and could discern the essence and prospects for relationship between the two nations.

Ukraine and Republic of Turkey, indeed, have much in common. The fact that both of the countries are marching into a new year of 2003 with new governments at their head is to underpin the thesis of concurrency of the processes not only in the external, but also in internal policies of the states.

It is in such terms that we should briefly enlarge on the latest changes within the internal political situation in Turkey.

The climax of this years' political tension inside Turkey caused by the inability of the former tripartite coalition government to overcome the sequel of the acute finance and economic crisis that flared up in February of 2001 turned out to be the parliamentary early elections on November 3, 2002. The parties of the former government coalition had suffered a crushing defeat at the elections being unable to crack the 10-percent barrier of votes needed to be re-elected to the Great National Assembly of the Republic of Turkey.

For the first time within the recent forty years history only two political parties joined the supreme legislative body of the country with one of them being able solely to form the Council of Ministers (the government). Based on the analysis of the first steps of the winners of parliamentary elections, in particular, the touring on the eve of the EU Copenhagen Summit of European countries by R. T. Erdogan , the leader of the Justice and Progress Party, the content of public declarations made, as well as large-scale promotion projects in support of Turkey's Europe integration efforts one is to conclude that ardent successors for such a policy of integration came to power. This fact implies the only thing - there is every condition for both countries to continue and strengthen bilateral contacts.

Relations in Political Sphere

Constructive partnership characteristic for the state of interaction of Ukraine and Turkey involves virtually all the spheres of bilateral relations possible with quite appreciable results achieved in every direction within the recent decade. It would not be an exaggeration to call Ukraine and Turkey cooperation as one exemplary of varied effectiveness in Ukraine's foreign policy. Strategic tasks facing Ukraine as well as measures applied to realize them find support and comprehensive assistance on the part of the Turkish state. Enough is to mention the fact that Turkey, following the open-door policy within NATO and advocating accessibility of the European Union to all the countries that share democratic values and meet correspondent criterions, is implicit, reliable, and devout supporter of the Ukrainian course for Euro-Atlantic integration.

Within the frames of international organizations Ukraine and the Republic of Turkey

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are taking joint stand on multiple issues in protecting bipartite interests. In addition, for Ukrainian parliamentary delegations their Turkish colleagues offer themselves as the most friendly channel that practically always speaks in support of Ukraine during discussion of issues important for this country, in particular, in the Council of Europe, Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation, OSCE, etc.

Ukrainian-Turkish relations are remarkable for their flexibility, which is a highly important factor under conditions of today. When international terrorist began to openly threaten the world security and these countries in particular, Ukraine and Turkey immediately started dialogue concerning exchange of knowledge and skill, as well as ways to counteract jointly the outbreak and spread of terrorism. During 2002, in January and November by turns in Ankara and Kyiv two rounds of Ukrainian- Turkish consultations were held at the level of the Directors of Boards of Foreign Policy Departments of both countries. The outcome of them, especially the accords reached concerning cooperation of the Internal Ministries of both countries in the sphere of skilled personnel training and knowledge in fighting terrorism, was highly important for continued antiterrorist interaction of Ukraine and Turkey.

Thanks to the joint efforts of Ukraine and Turkey the scale of bilateral relations is widening still further. How much successfully the trade, economic, military, and technical relations, regional cooperation, and interaction in the field of science and technology, culture and education are developing is shown below in detail. Interaction is growing gradually in the highly promising sphere of tourism with favorable conditions being created for it by the specifically effective cooperation of the two countries in the consular field.

To a great extent such a diversity in relation between Ukraine and Turkey could only be achieved due to the efforts of the leaderships of both countries that succeeded in arranging close contacts, defining mutual interests and outlining concrete ways for the comprehensive interaction.

Continuous political dialogue is being maintained between these two countries on the high and the highest levels during the recent years, with the stability of contacts between the heads of state especially worth noting. During the past decade, Presidents of Ukraine five times visited Turkey officially while Presidents of Turkey state called Ukraine thrice. Regular meetings of presidents take place also within the frames of international forums.

Among the major political events in bilateral relations of 2002 one should name the attendance by the President of Ukraine Leonid Kuchma of jubilee summit of the Organization of the Black-Sea Economic Cooperation and the visit to Ukraine by Ismail Cem, the then Foreign Minister of Turkey.

There is hope that 2003 is to be even richer in bilateral contacts. Provisions are made for official visits of Ahmet Necdet Sezer, President of the Republic of Turkey, to Ukraine, and Volodymyr Lytvyn, Head of the Verkhovna Rada, and Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych to Turkey. Concurrently, a number of other important measures are planned to significantly expand as a whole the scale of cooperation between Ukraine and the Republic of Turkey.

Thus, we may claim confidently today that the two nations have succeeded in founding a good starting pad so that with renewed energy to continue the common effort. The primary task facing the parties is to pack the bilateral cooperation with practical matters and projects, which realization would contribute to the improvement of well-being of our peoples.

Trade and Economic Cooperation

While analyzing the state of economic relations between Ukraine and Turkey, which

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are rightfully prominent in the bilateral cooperation, in the first place one should note that Turkey has gained a strong foothold as one of most promising priorities of this country's foreign economic activity.

If immediately after establishing diplomatic relations in 1992 the volumes of trade hardly exceeded $120 million a year, the figure stably beats the limit of $1 billion reaching its maximum in 1998 of $1.263 billion.

The total volume of bilateral trade during 9 months of 2002 equaled to $1.091 billion, thus outdoing similar period of the last year by 45 percent, with export of Ukraine being worth of $957.4 million (+44 percent) and import reaching $133.6 million (+50 percent).

As of today, Turkey is fourth among all the trade partners of Ukraine being behind only of Russia, Germany and Turkmenistan. In addition, it is only with Turkey that this country preserves the greatest among all the foreign partners positive balance of bilateral trade. In its turn, Ukraine is placed sixteenth among the principal trade partners of Turkey.

On the balance of the first half of 2002, prevailing were the metal production (45 percent), produce of ferrous metallurgy (27.9 percent), chemical industry (15 percent), plastics and raw rubber (3.2 percent), minerals (2.6 percent), timber and wood ware (1.5 percent), and machinery and equipment (1.2 percent).

The Turkish export commodities were represented primarily by phytogenic products (19.1 percent), plastics and raw rubber (14.7 percent), chemicals (11 percent), textiles (10.3 percent), machinery and equipment (9.6 percent), foodstuffs (9.5 percent), minerals (8 percent), surface vehicles (5.5 percent), and base metal produce (4.8 percent).

Despite high quantitative characteristics the fact that the structure of this country's export is practically remains unchanged during 5 to 6 years causes concern. The economy of Ukraine underwent considerable changes, which, however, produced no response from the Turkish economy. As before, purchase in Ukraine continues predominantly of ferrous metallurgy produce, iron ore, scrap metal, inorganic chemistry compounds, etc., with only an unjustifiably small portion of export comprising of the goods of machine building industry and other high tech produce.

There is, of course, objective reasons for that too. the bulk of manufactured goods imports is traditionally effected by Turkey from the EU member-countries due to absence of customs duties for goods imported from these countries and simplified certification procedures. The EU countries most of all make investments into the Turkish economy, and on these various goods, equipment, and so on are brought in, considering the Customs Union is in effect between Turkey and the EU.

At the same time, subjective reasons are also present, elimination of which is directly dependable on the Ukrainian enterprises.

Thus, one of the most effective means of increasing Ukrainian export to Turkey and diversifying its structure (especially, at the account of expanding the share of produce of the machine building industry) could be the creating by the domestic enterprises of their affiliations or joint ventures in Turkey. It would allow selling not only of separate kinds of goods, but also complete processing lines and know-how. In prospect, it would provide for this country's enterprises stable trade relations with them since they would need the supply on permanent basis of spare parts, components, etc.

Quite important remains also investment cooperation between Ukraine and Turkey. In accord to the data of the State Statistics Committee of Ukraine, two hundred and fifty seven enterprises with a total capital of $37.2 million operated in this country as of October 2002. The Turkish investments are distributed as follows: chemical industry - 22 percent; financial activity - 19 percent; wholesale trade and brokerage 16 percent; agriculture - 5 percent; construction - 3.5 percent; and transport - 3 percent. Among 111 countries-investors

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Turkey ranks twentieth in the volume of direct investments into the Ukraine's economy.

At the same time, irrespective the developed market infrastructure existing in Turkey, in particular, favorable investment climate, the size of Ukrainian investment into this country is insignificant so far: 5 enterprises with Ukrainian investment capital totaling $273.6 thousand are registered. Only one of them is manufacturing product, Ukrainian-Turkish joint ventures operating predominantly in the sphere of transport and services.

There are also good prospects for opening by Ukrainian enterprises of their representation offices in Turkey, especially, in economic free zones that are over a score in number 'pumping in and out' goods for the amount in excess of $10 billion. Setting up of a representation is seen as a sort of foreign investment in accord with the legislation of Turkey, and requires contributing of a minimal sum of $50 thousand.

In this connection, a cheaper way to solve the problem could be the conclusion by Ukrainian enterprises of agreements with the Turkish companies about representing their interests on the market in Turkey, however such form of cooperation is rarely employed.

In views of both Ukrainian and Turkish experts, the large-scale bilateral cooperation, joint projects realization including, is realistic in many spheres. In particular, it concerns power engineering, construction of gas and oil pipelines, chemical, coal, timber and woodworking industries, agriculture, transport, the sphere of knowledge- intensive technologies, and tourism.

Considerable potentialities for cooperation of both countries exist in military and technical sphere. Resources of Ukraine in this field are possible to and should be realized on the Turkish market. Ukraine has already made itself heard as a technologically developed country during the present Turkish tender for tank contract and is seen to be one of the favorites. Being not exclusively self-appraisal of the Ukrainian tank, this was stated by Turkish Defense Minister then S. Cakmakoglu, who was on a visit in Ukraine in summer of 2001.

The activity of the Joint Ukrainian-Turkish Commission on Trade and Economic Cooperation, which third session took place at the start of 2002 in Ankara, needs special emphasis. Together with the summing-up of the work done and discussion of new directions for further expansion of trade relations, the Commission adopted a resolution about concluding five new agreements; some of them are at the stage of adjustment with the remaining already signed. In particular, noteworthy is the Agreement on Financial and Technical Cooperation signed in November of 2002. The one opens new opportunities to not only receive by this country financial help from Turkey, but also to learn from Turkish experience in various spheres of economy, legislation, stepping-up of privatization, the use of economic free zones, etc.

In view of the Republic of Turkey being member of the WTO, a party to the Customs Union with the EU, and a signatory of 1963 to the Association Agreement with the then European Economic Community, there is hope for further support by this Black Sea neighbor of this country's course for full membership in these influential international organizations.

Scientific and Technical Cooperation

The development of scientific and technical cooperation between Ukraine and Turkey, which goal is the promotion of projects of the application character, that is, of knowledge intensive and high-tech products, as well as using experimental basis and other opportunities offered by Turkey, is one more important orientation of bilateral activity. Considering scientific and technologic potential of Ukraine and bearing in mind the fact that the Republic of Turkey is working actively towards expansion of this kind of resources of its own, further activation of bilateral multifold cooperation in science and

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technological fields between Ukraine and Turkey may give another boost to their strategically important development as well as to the expansion of mutually beneficial trade and economic relations.

Quite ponderable results have been achieved in this sphere within the recent decade. For instance, the Joint Committee on Matters of Cooperation in Science and Education and Joint Ukrainian-Turkish Laboratory were organized, the latter as a unique structure of the sort. It operates successfully abroad on the basis of the Turkish R&D "Marmara Center" with the Council on Matters of Sci-Tech Research of Turkey. Besides, at the international level the agreement in principle was reached regarding diversifying relations in economic sphere through activating cooperation in the field of high-technology.

A strong conventional law basis has been formed. Thus, the Intergovernmental Agreement on cooperation in the sphere of research and use of space was signed in December of 2001, while the State Construction Bureau "Pivdenne" of Ukraine negotiated a contract in the first half of 2002 for supply to Turkey of a trial batch of wind-power generators. With the overall need of 3 hundred pieces of the device, these are to be tested under local conditions. Concurrently, in view of the complexity of courses and spheres of scientific and technological cooperation, the work is in progress aimed at arranging a framed intergovernmental agreement on scientific and technological cooperation between Ukraine and Turkey to enhance coordination of efforts of correspondent Ukrainian departments in the target country.

In addition to the above-mentioned, such kinds of scientific and technological collaboration are worth mentioning as provision for the participation of this country in the work of the Council of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation and Commissions on the Black Sea Pollution Protection; and execution of joint fundamental and applied research in various fields(e. g., ecology, geology, oceanography, space exploration, computer and materials sciences, etc.).

Expansion of cooperation with Turkey in such field as the environment protection is especially topical. Here, Ukraine has already accumulated a considerable experience, scientific knowledge and know-how, which it would readily share Turkey. It concerns the soil protection against wind and water erosion resulted by farming, re-cultivation of land after minerals extracted, use of biological plant protection, production of organic humus, and so on.

Take, for instance, the technique of extracting from the Black Sea of hydrogen sulfide, which because of increase of its concentration in the sea water often results in death of everything alive there. The techniques developed by the Ukrainian scientists allow to collect the gas and modify it to methane, ammonia and the like. In perspective, hydrogen sulfide as rival to oil and natural gas may become practically inexhaustible source of energy.

It should be noted that scientific and technological potential of this country, especially, the one of the national Academy of Sciences, is unmatched in the Republic of Turkey because the number of the R&D institutions in Turkey is comparatively small compared to Ukraine or the countries of the West. At the same, considering the Turkish market being knowledge intensive and capacious for high-tech produce, by taking into account interests of that country Ukraine must find its deserving place on it. In addition, under the scarcity of funds to finance the national R&D programs at home, the more efficient use of funding sources, research ranges and other capabilities of the Turkish side would make for the support of some scientific development trends of this country.

One of the lines of scientific and technologic cooperation with the Turkish partners may become joint research within the frames of the Sixth Framed R&D program of the EU,

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which realization Turkey is to participate as full member. The Turkish partners express readiness to facilitate drawing of the Ukrainian institutions to conduct joint projects as a third party.

At the same time, one should note that highly promising is deemed the formation of International Scientific and Educational Center of High Technology, which would serve as efficacious channel of transfer of high-tech and knowledge intensive product of Ukraine to the Turkish market, on the basis of the Joint Ukrainian-Turkish Laboratory.

Ukraine has a lot in store to offer to its Turkish partner. In return, it is interested in the practical experience of Turkey, especially, of creating technology parks, development of economic and technologic free zones, etc.

Cooperation in Humanitarian Sphere

Cooperation between the two countries becomes even more intensive in the humanitarian sphere, collaboration in the field of higher education being one of its key orientations, with projects under contracts established earlier between the universities of both countries actively implemented.

In this connection one should mention the visit to Turkey of the delegation of the Kyiv national Economic University (KNEU) with its rector A. Pavlenko at the head at the invitation of R. Aihana, rector of Gazi University (of Ankara) that was held April 15 to 20, 2002. Among the most important results of the visit is the arrangement regarding Ukrainian language as elective subject to be taught there starting from this academic year, as well as understanding in principle concerning recognition on the Turkish territory of KNEU's diplomas in a number of major specialties.

Quite intense cooperation continues between institutions of higher learning of the two countries, for instance, the National technical university "Kyiv Polytechnic Institute" and the Middle East Technical University of Ankara; the Tavriya University (of Simferopol) and Ankara University; the Lviv State Medical and I. Franko National Universities with the University of Istanbul; the Sumy State University and Mugla University; the Ukrainian Aviation University and Eskisehir University; the National Academy of the Ukrainian Internal Ministry and the Police Academy of Turkey.

The work continues on the reciprocal recognition of education documents by Ukraine and Turkey. A significant result for the Ukrainian professional learning happened to be the fact of entering into the Catalogue of the Turkish Supreme Council of Higher Learning of the series of education programs by the National technical university "KPI" that provided for automatic recognition in Turkey of the diplomas issued by the said institution. The arrangement also reached concerning putting on the Catalogue of a number of education programs of the Kyiv National Economic University.

Active dialogue is going on between regions of Ukraine and Turkish provinces. It is highly agreeable to note that bilateral cooperation acquires more practical character to substitute declarative agreements.

Within the frames of partnership relations established earlier an exchange of groups of children took place aimed at health improvement between the Sumy region and Mugla province (each of 80 persons), and cities of Skadovsk and Zonguldak (each of 40 persons).

Delegation of the Podil District State Administration of Kyiv, fraternizing with the Chankai district of Ankara, visited Turkey. The supplementary protocol was signed there setting up a number of agreements concerning, in particular, opening in Ankara of a park dedicated to Kyiv, exchange of experts, arranging of art exhibitions, etc. At the final stage is the plan of establishing collaboration between the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and Antalya Province.

Another constituent both of the socioeconomic and humanitarian spheres of the

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Ukrainian-Turkish relations worth of special attention is the issue of reintegration and organization of life of the Crimean Tartars that keep on returning to Ukraine. The common mission in this direction was and still remains the ensuring these complex processes would pass through as rapidly as possible and the least painfully. From the side of the President of Ukraine Leonid Kuchma, the governments of this country and the Autonomous Republic of Crimea everything possible is being done to solve the highly complicated socioeconomic problem of Crimean Tartars. It involves their job placement, lodgment, creating conditions to learn the native language, preservation and augmenting rich cultural heritage and historic experience, etc.

The assistance Turkey provides to build dwellings for the Crimean tartars and form correspondent infrastructure is valued highly in Ukraine. Three programs of the government of the Republic of Turkey are in action today: one of them is directed at construction (or purchase) of housing for the Tartars in Crimea, while the other two is dedicated to making infrastructure at places of their compact habitation. In addition, under the program of training representatives of Turk peoples more that 4 hundred students - citizens of Ukraine of the Crimean Tartar origin study at present at the institutions of higher learning of the Republic of Turkey at different departments ranging from educational to engineering.

The cultural front has not been left unaffected, since on the regular basis the exchange continues by artistic and theatrical groups, and art and photo exhibits are arranged. Dance and choral ensembles from both countries are taking part in various international festivals. Thus, in August of 2002, the collective of the Kyiv municipal administration "Berehynia" participated in the First Creative Activity Festival of the Black Sea capitals at Ankara, which was covered broadly by Turkish media. It is enjoyable to note that one of the concerts within the frames of the cultural event was dedicated to the 11th anniversary of Ukraine's Independence. In summer of 2002, children's folk dance ensemble from Turkey attended the Second International Festival of Children Creative Activity of the member-countries of the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation conducted at International rest-center for children "Artek".

In December of 2002 the term has expired of the Exchange Program in the spheres of culture, science, youth and sports for 2000 to 2002 between the Ukrainian Cabinet of Ministers and the government of the Republic of Turkey. During the period, quite a few fascinating and useful events took place. At present, the Ukrainian and Turkish side are busy working out a program of exchange for another two year period, which is expected to be even more specific and rich with interesting events. Specifically, it provides for a series of large-scale action such as the Days of Culture, Science, and Movies of Ukraine in Turkey and vice versa.

Activity is going on concerning cooperation between Ukraine and turkey in the sphere of tourism. Ukrainians are constant guests of Turkey, they know and like the country. Unfortunately, citizens of Turkey not as frequent visitors in Ukraine, which, according to statistics, happens 10 times less often. Hence, the primary task is to draw as more tourists from Turkey to Ukraine as possible, also at the expense of making the Ukrainian tourism more attractive for the Turkish customers, namely, arranging new types of routes and tours to cater for the demand on the market. This may provide for expanding ethnic tourism (primarily in Crimea), yacht-club sport, medical travel, and so on.

Among the principal Ukrainian-Turkish contacts that occurred in 2002 in the line of cooperation in tourism one should note the visit of the Minister of Tourism Mustafa Tashar to Ukraine on April 4 to 8, 2002, and the Second Session of the Interdepartmental Commission on Tourism. The order of the day was the burning issues of attracting Turkish

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investments with an aim to expand infrastructure of tourism in Ukraine, and to promote founding of joint ventures; coordination of partnered activities within the frames of the working group on tourism of the Organization of the Black Sea Cooperation and its Tourism Association; establishing of systematic exchange of information, statistical data including, as well as specialists in the tourism business; and working out of common strategy for bilateral expansion of travel industry.

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Looking at the past and present of Ukrainian-Turkish relations one might claim without exaggeration that these countries are model friends, partners, and good neighbors. They are related not only by the Black Sea and external political priorities, but also by the long history, certain traditions, and even some common words that have similar use both in Ukrainian and Turkish.

Equipped with considerable baggage of mutual achievements and lifelong experience, these two peoples are disposed to accelerate further the bilateral cooperation by materializing the great potential and inexhaustible resources of mutually profitable partnership of Ukraine and Turkey.

There are more that one year lie ahead well-stocked with important visits, meetings and events, and day-to-day painstaking work of government officials, politicians, diplomats, and scientists of both countries in an effort to keep on and strengthen cooperation, looking for new spheres to apply it. Each step in this direction is one more brick laid into the structure of strong and reliable bilateral relations.

The practical experience of Ukrainian-Turkish partnership needs to be taken care of, valued and multiplied, the more so since the relations between these countries have a good outlook to be only achieved through joint efforts and mutual will.

Translated by Victor Mylovzorov


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