Libmonster ID: RU-17302

Wholly past is almost a decade of the program continued to eliminate the strategic offensive weapons in Ukraine, during which time the 43rd Strategic Missile Army, the most powerful strategic nuclear-missile organization in the world, ceased to exist. Gone also is the nuclear weaponry itself as well as everything connected with it. Meanwhile, there is still no end to arguments concerning the issue whether it was right what out country has done by kissing the nuclear monster goodbye. Regrettably, some of the publications on the subject fail to be impartial in throwing light on the actual conditions and circumstances of the launching up and implementing the program and its importance for Ukraine. Such is the opinion of the missilery men who are called to speak it up here. The purpose of their statement is to dispel the mythological clouds seeded by the above publications by the way of expressing the viewpoint of their own.


Myth number 1 is about Ukraine showing the white flag in the nuclear-missile confrontation that was allegedly initiated by the military themselves.

Neither Ukraine, nor its two missile-armed divisions comprising the 43d Strategic Missile Army capitulated or were not going to. We made threats to no one with the nuclear weaponry in the same way as nobody had delivered ultimatum to our country as to its elimination. During 1991 to 1994, at the time of the political decision making concerning dismantling of the nuclear weaponry, one should have had the political will and foresight, being conscious of the immense responsibility for the consequences of such a step for this country. After all, in settling such overriding issues, the third country in the world as to its nuclear potential should have been guided not by the ambitions, being nostalgic for the past, but by the rule of reason. Needless is to say what a mass of political, economic and social problems had been connected with the decision. The first thing to do was to have the answer to a question what we needed this weaponry that was not defensive at all, for what purpose we intended to use it, and how much would it cost us? It is even hard to imagine today what would have happened if there had been no elimination, and what use common Ukrainians would have had out of this nuclear-missile potential. What we would, indeed, have had is the immense powder barrel for the whole

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Ukraine to sit on, and a threat of another ecological catastrophe. Nuclear-missile complexes are, primarily, complicated engineering systems and equipment in need of highly skilled and expensive maintenance and operation efforts. Missile launch systems, installations, and complexes filled with rocket fuel and outfitted with nuclear warheads could not function safely under the conditions that existed. They either had to be serviced and operated in accord to the established requirements and procedures, or ...there were unforeseen consequences in store and a real threat of emergencies rivaled by the most dreadful movie scenes showing catastrophes. The terms of safe handling of nuclear warheads and use of underground silos and missiles RS-18 and RS-22 were limited. For instance, the condition of all of 130 silos for RS-18 missiles technologically excluded their further operation from 1993. This fact explains why the elimination of the strategic arms was started exactly with them. The same concerned also the silos containing RS-22 missiles. During 1996 to 1997, a decision was urgently to be taken as to their further fate. Under the tangible preconditions of loosing control over the state of solid rocket fuel inside the stages of the RS-22 intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM) there was no alternative to their dismantling in view of the lack of funds for upgrading and maintaining the combat missile complex in safe condition.

The greatest service by the missile officers consisted primarily in doing their utmost to guarantee the security of Ukrainian citizens under miserable funding or even lack of it. Actually, what during the existence of the USSR was called the "combat alert duty" turned into something diametrical opposite-any launches were off the question with all the concerns focused on preventing accidental launch instead. The missilery exceeded all the possible and impossible life cycles and required either replacement or major overhaul; the missile complexes that were developed by all the countries of the former USSR after the demise of the latter were left without mandatory maintenance and servicing, as well as repair resources.

To abandon nuclear weapons took Ukraine long to make a resolve and it did this cautiously measuring thrice before cutting once. From 1991 to 1994, the heads of all government institutions that bore relation to this problem investigated chances of keeping the nuclear weaponry together with experts directly at the missile bases in the region of Khmelnytskyi and in the adjoining area of Pervomaisk in the Mykolayiv region. The conclusion effectuated was categorically negative. The thing was that Ukraine was not a nuclear weaponry manufacturer. Under the international non- proliferation treaty in effect, it was out of question to purchase, do repairs or modernize anything at the expense of other countries. Hence, who was that we capitulated to? America, Russia, or some other nuclear powers? No, it was exclusively to ourselves that we did it.

Here is a short reference information about the road of Ukraine to its non-nuclear status that it finally received on December 5, 1994, by joining the Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty. In the declaration by the Verkhovna Rada made on October 24, 1991, the following was stated: "Ukraine follows the policy of complete elimination of nuclear weapons and their components based on the Ukrainian territory. The country intends to carry this out in the shortest terms possible proceeding from its legal, technical, financial, organizational and other capabilities...." The declaration and letter of the Ukraine's President to the U. S. President of May 5, 1992, stating that "Ukraine would ensure dismantling of all the nuclear weaponry, strategic offensive weapons located on its territory included" preconditioned the drafting, approval and signing by Ukraine on May 23, 1992, the Lisbon Protocol to the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty. By signing the Trilateral Agreement

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by the presidents of Ukraine, the USA and Russia on January 14, 1994, and resolution #3919-XII adopted by the Verkhovna Rada every condition of Ukraine had been fulfilled concerning the possible elimination of all strategic arms in its territory. Consequently, on December 12, 1994, exchange instruments of ratification took place between Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia and the USA. Thus, the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty of July 31, 1991, the Protocol to it of May 23, 1992, and the constituent documents gained force from December 5, 1995. This stipulated the that elimination is to be started of all strategic offensive weapons, including the strategic aviation complexes TU-60 and TU-95MC within seven years, that is, before December 5. 2001. Therefore, it means that the decision concerning elimination of the strategic arms was taken not by certain personalities or generals of the 43rd Strategic Missile Army, but by the government bodies provided by the Constitution.

In the far away '60s of the last century, the majority of the world countries displayed goodwill and intent to ban tests of nuclear weapons, as well as secure its non- proliferation. Resulted by the treaty concluded on non-proliferation of the nuclear weapons, five countries that possessed it at the time were entitled to have it, while the majority of other states voluntarily relinquished such their right. In accord with Article 9.3 of the Agreement, only the country that produced and tested the nuclear weapon or other nuclear explosive device before January 1, 1967, that is, the USA, USSR (Russia), Great Britain, France and China had the status of nuclear power. Hence, Ukraine as an independent state left with its nuclear warheads and missiles, had no chances and grounds to formally obtain the nuclear status recognized by the international community. That is why Ukraine's freewill renunciation of nuclear weapons by joining the international treaty was for the country fully justifiable both internationally and economically. If the country had preserved the nuclear weapons to please its ambitions, the attitude towards Iraq could have had extended to Ukraine too. It is worth noting that by denouncing its nuclear weapons Ukraine received international guarantees of its safety.

The step towards disarmament was painful but inevitable because of the following main reasons:

* moral and technical obsolescence of the armaments and military materiel (AMM);

* impossibility to secure safe operation and storage of the AMM;

* economic inexpedience of keeping AMM;

* reduction of the AMM under international agreements.

Today, a whole variety of other problems connected to nuclear weapons ceased to exist. This is highly important for us, Ukrainians, for whom the notion "safety" has stuck firmly in our conscious due to the Chernobyl disaster. The principle achievement of the elimination program is that life became less hazardous in Ukraine, and not only here. The said is quite enough to acknowledge of the government people that initiated the program and implemented it into life.

Measuring thrice before cutting

Myth number 2 is about the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine and 43rd Strategic Missile Army deciding all by themselves how the nuclear weapons was to be eliminated and setting the order to realize the process.

The process of eliminating nuclear weapons is a highly complex and costly procedure. One should note that nuclear disarmament for Ukraine was an unprecedented event. The nuclear missile weaponry was being developed under conditions of cooperation

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of the entire USSR, while to disarm Ukraine had alone that led to substantial problems emerging, primarily in providing security of the process. During 1992 to 1993, on the basis of the President's of Ukraine decree "On Measures Concerning Pursuit of the Ukrainian Nuclear Policy and Elimination of Nuclear Weaponry on its Territory" the mechanics of the disarmament was being developed with the leading experts, institutions and organizations, as well as core enterprises, design bureaus and research institutions drawn into the process. The Cabinet of Ministers, National Security Council, Ministry of Industrial Policy, Ministry of Defense, Foreign Ministry, Ministry of Ecological Safety, Ministry of Labor and Social Policy, State Committee of Ukraine for Land Resources, Health Ministry, Industrial Corporation "Pivdenny Machine Building Works", State Design Bureau "Pivdenne" and others participated in working out and adopting the decisions.

The upshot of this painstaking effort was the "Complex Program of Phased Reduction and Elimination of the Air - and Land-Based Nuclear Weapons" approved by the Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine on November 6, 1993. The document stressed that the Complex Program would only start after ratification of the START I. By the Decrees #3624-XII of November 18, 1993, and #3919 of February 3, 1994, the Verkhovna Rada ratified the START I allowing embarking on carrying the Complex Program out.

During 1997 to 1998, by the separate President's of Ukraine decrees in the same order two more complex programs were worked out and adopted that concerned the elimination of the solid fuel missiles RS-22 (SS-24 under the NATO classification) and strategic airborne complexes. The programs stipulated monitoring and accountability established for the implementation of all the measures. More than one hundred of various conferences were conducted to discuss proposals concerning the improvement of the process of disarmament and their further execution. One may meditate today about allegedly other more optimal schemes existing to organize the process of eliminating strategic arm in Ukraine, but to shift the responsibility on the shoulders of exclusively of the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine and 43rd Strategic Missile Army is totally unacceptable.

The Tale About Credulous Americans

Myth number 3 concerns funds allocated to Ukraine for arms eliminating and material and technical support to be handled by the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine and 43rd Strategic Army.

The above looks rather more like a fairytale that a myth about supposedly unsuspecting Americans that, dripping with money, offered hundreds of millions dollars for this side to spend trustfully promising to give increasingly more. If it were this way, because of our internal problems and troubles, there would be no monies today, while the problems with the nuclear missile disarmament would be even greater.

Having declared about its non-nuclear status, Ukraine was ready to make concrete steps on the road of disarmament. However, having made assessments of the funds required to be allocated for this, that is, billions of U. S. dollars, realization dawned on it that without international help all the intentions are doomed to be pure declarations. Ukraine was successful in solving the problem. The U. S. Government adopted a resolution to provide assistance to Ukraine to eliminate strategic arm on its territory, to prevent the spread weapons of mass destruction.

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The accord also defined general terms and conditions as well as assistance provision mechanism to eliminate nuclear weapons. The realize the Accord a series of implementation was additionally signed to specify the concrete lines and machinery of cooperation between Ukraine and the USA in the sphere of strategic arms elimination and providing help during the process.

The United States, however, agreed to lend its hand only on its own conditions, namely, the U. S. Congress would allocate funds that are to be appropriated in Ukraine by that same American companies under competitive contracts (i. e., integrating contractors). Each of these companies was to be funded to perform concrete works or services agreed by the Ukrainian and American sides. Under the Nunn-Lugar Law adopted in the USA, assistance to Ukraine in elimination of strategic arms was to be rendered through the supply of the required technical equipment and materiel, services provision and personnel training. In other words, the American side was providing not the financial help, but ensured execution of all the practical measures needed to realize the program of elimination. To achieve the goal the American integrating contractors hired Ukrainian contracting organizations, purchased construction and special purpose equipment of foreign make, which they gave to Ukrainian contractors and arranged execution of works directly at the sites. In accord with the interstate agreements American side was not to compensate in Ukraine any expense items directly or indirectly connected with the state budget, including taxes. Hence, the Ukrainian contractors were freed from paying taxes and did not include them in settlements with the American side. Thus, the American integrating contractors did not pay or transferred a single dollar to the Ukrainian government institutions and organizations since the USA had no intent to finance the Ukrainian budget.

On top of this, machinery and equipment supplied by the American contractors including, the entire material and technical aid could be used exclusively for the elimination purposes until the end of the program. The 43rd Strategic army neither received a single dollar from the American aid, nor used a single unit of the American machinery or equipment without a written consent of the other side. Thus, having not received and with nothing in possession (as being not liable to), what did they handle? Exclusively the homebred mythologists know the answer.

The manner the Americans interacted with this country's Ministry of Defense

Myth number 4: The 43rd Strategic Army performed all the works on elimination of the missile complexes and alone defined their amounts, cost and appointed the expectants.

Paradoxically as it may sound, but the missile weapons officers practically had little to do with the elimination of missile complexes. The role of the 43rd Strategic Army in the process was reduced to the three tasks: dismounting of the warheads, recovering fuel components, and pulling the missiles out of the silos. All the rest, that is, changing the silos and entire missile infrastructure into green meadows and forest clearings, was provided and performed by the American integrating contractors. The silos were handed over to Americans, as the saying goes, "in complete combat rigging", but without missiles and, of course, stripped of the equipment.

The Americans were even empowered with the task of dismantling so-called "sensitive" instrumentation carried out for them by the competent Ukrainian companies. Concerning interaction of the American

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companies with the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine and 43rd Strategic Army, a special agency had been created with the Ministry of Defense - the Treaty Implementation Center (TIC) that functioned as coordinator. On top of other tasks, the TIC examined for the American side whether necessary licenses and permits to do the jobs were available with the Ukrainian contractors as well as issued them certificates proving their participation in the elimination program in accord with the correspondent decrees of the Ukrainian government. This, and nothing more that that. We do not believe that creators of the myth would have had much trouble to study the issue out, but it was not within their plans, which were intended at falsification of the real state of affairs to frame up accusations of the top officers of the 43rd Strategic Army. The manner in which the U. S. integrating contractors assessed the work content, provided its financial backing, and chose the subcontractor organizations was as follows:

First of all, during the preliminary stage of a concrete program, for instance, the elimination of combat missile complexes RS-18 or RS-22, with the U. S. experts and support of the Ukrainian side attracted, the U. S. Defense Department conducted examination of the sites and made their detailed specification and inventory of jobs to be executed. Based on the assessments and being guided by standards and rules of their own, the U. S. Congress allocated particular funds to realize the program. The issue of how many funds and the manner to handle them were the prerogative of the U. S. party with no adjustments of the matter being held with the Ukrainian side. Next, the U. S. partners chose the American integrating Contractor Company to provide the most grounded cost-and-technical proposition concerning execution of jobs. The integrating contractor was accountable for execution of the entire work package including devising of technologies, inspection of the sites, and immediate execution of jobs there. For that purpose the Ukrainian subcontract organizations were drawn that were selected in accord to the procedure set by Americans themselves.

Such a procedure was clearly defined by the basic contract between the U. S. Defense Department and American integrating contractor. Below are the principal provisions on selecting tender participants and signing contracts:

1. The U. S. integrating contractor independently selected the qualified participants of the tender, which list was not apt for change or required approval by any Ukrainian institution, including the Ukrainian Ministry of Defense.

2. The U. S. integrating contractor was the sole organization that formally was entitled for selection of Ukrainian contractors and signing contracts with them.

3. In choosing the winner of the tender the U. S. integrating contractor took to consideration and accounted for the quality and lever of working over of the technical (technologic) aspect of the offer, cost as well as requirements as to work schedule observation.

While selecting contractor such criterions as the size of the company, form of ownership and the term in existence were excluded from consideration under any circumstances. Apart from that, the Ukrainian contractor was not limited in attracting for services and work execution on other enterprises on subcontract terms subject, however, in each case for approval by the American party. Even such characteristics as possession by the subcontractor of his own or leased equipment played no special role since during execution of silos elimination the Ukrainian contractor employed the American machinery and equipment. For example, hoisting cranes, bulldozers, earth- moving machines, graders, compressors and

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even mobile dwelling and kitchen were being provided with as well as fuel. Americans are money-conscious and can spend it efficiently: they proved the fact at the works of eliminating strategic arm in Ukraine. We have still to learn the and avoid accusing the Americans of choosing a wrong Ukrainian contractor contrary to someone's wishes, or paying him too much or too little.

Our home-bred mythologizers painted the scheme of the American integrating contractors making their choice as follows: allegedly, the higher-ups in the 43rd Strategic Army addressed the American contractor to conclude a contract with a certain Ukrainian company and compensate it plentifully, and the partners hurried to swiftly carry out the order. American contractors were not dependent either financially or organizationally on the Ukrainian military. Besides, who in Ukraine is so much interested to make marionettes of solid American companies, thus staining their reputation and damaging relations between the Ukrainian and American sides? Actually, there were no such facts, and it is proved through numerous verifications by competent organs.

Regarding the attempts to bring some of the Ukrainian enterprises into challenge, such an instance may be brought to light. One of the leading Ukrainian companies, Research and Production Enterprise "Strum" of Vinnytsia, that made a considerable contribution into the implementation of the program of eliminating strategic nuclear arms in Ukraine. It succeeded to build up an excellent business reputation with the American partners, but had never been monopolistic on the program and enjoyed no privileges with the American contractors. Along with other enterprises, it participated in tenders in severe competition endeavoring to conform as much as possible to the criterions set by the American side that helped them to win. In accord to their own account, in the "school of business" with American teachers they occupied the front desks and tried to learn better that others. It is by no means accidentally that the "Strum" is today the only Ukrainian participating in the program of strategic nuclear arms elimination in Russia. In addition, it was this company that had won the tender within the NATO frames to utilize rocket fuel waste in Moldova, though it had not always been so in the bids with the American contractors. For instance, under the biggest large-scale project to eliminate SS-24 launch silos this company won a tender and was engaged on only nine out of 46 sites. The remaining 37 silos were eliminated by three other companies that also won tenders and concluded contacts with American company. Herewith, we let the mythologists know that none of the generals of the 43rd Strategic Army or their kin in any way related to the founders of the "Strum" Company or its structural units. Everything that was written in this regard is undisguised falsification.

It is also worth noting that the amount of funds allocated by the U. S. Congress is much greater than the value of contracts concluded by the U. S. companies with the Ukrainian contractors. Not all of the home-bred faultfinders of the program are aware of such a fact: the expenses of the U. S. companies to purchase material and technical support for the program, the cost of its maintenance during operation, all the representation and entertainment allowances connected with negotiations, visits of the American experts to monitor the results and rational use of the funds and means, and even the upkeep of the U. S. bureaucrats, which activities were connected with execution of the program, were covered at the account of the funds allocated by the U. S. Congress to eliminate strategic nuclear arm in Ukraine.

Those who feels sick at such conditions of rendering the U. S. assistance to Ukraine

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may criticize or disagree, but this will change nothing since these conditions were set forth by the U. S. A. at the time of signing the framework agreement in October 1993, leaving us no other choice then and now too. The strategic nuclear arms were to be eliminated either at the account of the Ukrainian budget, or by accepting conditions of the American sponsorship, that is, either something or nothing.

Here it is the show of the specifics of the national character: you helped us by doing all the work free, which is very good; now, please, give back the monies that you saved or spent for your own needs. How would like such an appeal? The more our criticism of those who help us takes such a form, the less desire they would have to provide it in future and chances for us to get it. The prove the help is effective is the fact that Ukraine fulfilled its commitments to eliminate the strategic nuclear arms within the terms set primarily at the expense of the U. S. assistance.

The ABCs of taxation

Myth number 5: The 43rd Strategic Army at its own choosing freed the Ukrainian subcontractor organizations from taxation leading to tax evasion and doing substantial damage to the country.

This myth was constructed, one would think, not because of ignorance or fallacies, but intentionally with an aim to discredit and persecute top officers of the 43rd Strategic Army and Ukrainian contractors. Somebody, deeming it to one's advantage, made all this without any substantial effort applied by simply planting this nonsense as the established fact through the official channels to the competent state organs. What followed were numerous check-ups by various agencies: within three years, the 43rd Strategic Army endured more that fifty, and some of the Ukrainian contractors more that twenty such inspections. And what was the result?

No infringement was found just as no losses incurred by the country. Quite a few of the inspectors, who inspected one and the same place for dozens of times, were amazed by the insistence with which there were pressed to find infringements where the latter were not and could not be. What struck even more were inanity of the inspection tasks and the level of competence of the bureaucrats wording them. It is not hard to make sure of that by getting acquainted with the normative papers regulating the issue of preferential taxation of the works related to elimination of the strategic nuclear arms in Ukraine.

The Ukrainian contractor companies' being entitled for preferential taxation of works on elimination of the strategic nuclear arms were listed in the framework agreement between Ukraine and the U. S. A. of October 25, 1993, stating that:

"The United States of America, its staff, contractors and contractors' staff are exempt from the responsibility to pay any taxes;"

"Material and technical facilities and services, which acquisition by the United States in Ukraine was carried out pursuant of carrying out of the present agreement shall not be liable for taxation with no duty, levy and similar payments imposed, and such taxes, duties, levies and payments shill not be transferred for payment by the United States by any person that acquired material and technical facilities or services for the United States in Ukraine."

By normative documents of Ukraine the Ukrainian contractors and their subcontractors are exempt from payment any taxes and duties (that is, mandatory payments)

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except deductions to the Pension Fund and Social Security Fund (the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine regulation # 2185 of October 31, 1999). The same regulatory acts the procedure was defined through which Ukrainian contractors may make use of these privileges. In accord with the said procedure, on the grounds of the established list of documents the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine issued references that confirmed the participation of a contractor or subcontractor in concrete works to eliminate strategic nuclear arms in Ukraine. Incidentally, the inspection checkups failed to reveal even a single reference issued improperly. .

It is apparent that in case a Ukrainian contractor attracted a subcontractor for handing over to him over a portion of job to be performed, the contractor was accountable before the American company for performing the entire volume of work reflected in his certificates of the acceptance. The subcontractor correspondingly showed in his documents only the portion of the total volume that he was commissioned with. Hence, the above references reflected information from certificates of acceptance: for the whole volume of works for the contractor, and for part of the said volume for the subcontractor.

You would say that everything is as simple as ABC here, and ask what the top officers of the 43rd Strategic Army were accused of? However, accused they were in nothing less that creating machinery of evading taxes.

Accusations were fabricated effortlessly: they took the value of the works performed by the contractor under the contract with an American company that was indicated in references. The amount (let us call it item 1) should have been, of course, equal to the cost of contract. Then took the value of works performed by the subcontractor attracted to do separate jobs under the same contract, and which was indicated in references issued to the subcontractor to be called here item 2. It is obvious that works performed by the subcontractors were included in the total volumes done by the contractor, that is, item 1 included item 2. So there, it turned out, the infringement lied in the fact that the total value of the volumes of the work performed under the contract stated in the references issued to the contractor and to his subcontractors (in other words, item 1 plus item 2) was greater of the cost of the contract (that is, item 1).

The above hardly seems credible, but we are setting forth our opinion at this length just to show to what degree of absurdity all that could be reduced and top it making the object for the controlling organs to inspect if there is a chance to arrange it.

No infraction found after 146 checkups

Myth number 6: On abuse and infringement of the legislation in force on the part of top officers of the 43rd Strategic Army during the strategic nuclear arms elimination.

All the accusations in question directed against the top officers of the 43rd Strategic Army are reduced just to those myths from the first to the fifth one. All in all during the incomplete two years one hundred and forty six checkups were carried out at the 43rd Strategic Army at various levels of its activity while carrying out elimination of nuclear arms, as well as verification of the myths mentioned. The competent authorities unequivocally gave their categorical answer: there were no infringements of the existing legislation and the order of execution of works on eliminating strategic nuclear arms on the part of the top officers of the 43rd Strategic Army.

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This bitter pill we should like to sugarcoat a bit. Contrary to a popular belief about the program of elimination of strategic nuclear arms in Ukraine being associated exclusively with destruction, we would like to point to the facts of what had been done by the American side within the frames of it beyond the missile sites. Repaired were 64.8 km of main railroad lines, 20.54 km of local railways, 581 km of motor road, and 182 bridges; 55,378.8 tons of scrap metal were withdrawn and packaged; 1,700.8 tons of paraffin, and 4,613.0738 km of cable were utilized. For the military men of the 43rd Strategic Army flats were built or purchased in Khmelnytskyi - 682, in Pervomaisk - 350, in Vinnytsia - 215; as well as medical equipment supplied for the military healthcare institutions for the amount of 16 million U. S. dollars.

The signatories:

Retired colonels: Ihor Arseniyev, Mykola ASTAKHOV, Olexandr BEREZENKO, Olexandr POLIEVOI, Ivan SOSIEDKO, Olexandr HAVRYLOV, Yury RUSAKOV, Yevhen KOZLOV, Vladislav FILATOV, Vilen TYMOSCHUK, Vitaly KUCHYNSKY, Yevhen SHEVCHENKO;

Retired lieutenant colonels: Olexandr YEMELIANOV, Olexandr KAZNACHEYEV, Volodymyr KOVALIOV, Mykola MARYNIN, Volodymyr CHEREPANOV.

Translated by Victor Mylovzorov


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