Libmonster ID: RU-14988

This radiation is a flux of the nuclei of chemical elements, protons for the most part, accelerated to high energies as a result of supernova explosions.*

Such a hypothesis was advanced back in the 1950s. It got a substantial confirmation when Acad. Vitaly Ginzburg (Nobel Prize, 2003) found that nonthermal radio-frequency radiation emanating from supernova remnants (SNR) is generated in magnetic fields by high-energy electrons with a spectrum close to that of cosmic rays.

What remained was experimental proof that a nuclear reaction of cosmic rays likewise occurs in SNR, that is understanding the mechanism of acceleration. According to Acad. Germogen Krymsky (Institute of Cosmophysical Studies and Aeronomy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences), a good deal of work has been done both in theory and in experimental studies to solve these two problems. As shown by research findings of the past two- three years, both have been clarified.

To detect the nuclear component of cosmic rays in SNR our physicists and astronomers joined hands in a cooperative effort and built super telescopes (designed by Acad. Pavel Cherenkov) capable of registering gamma radiation in the region of several TeV.** Such emissions were thought to be produced with the decay of neutral pions generated by the nuclear component.

Simultaneously a team of researchers under Dr. Yevgeny Berezhko (Institute of Cosmophysical Studies and Aeronomy, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences) came up with a theory postulating generation of cosmic rays by shock waves in SNR. Since in the process of acceleration a significant part of energy is imparted to cosmic rays, it was important to consider their reverse impact-that is the formation of an extended forefront and generation of magnetic turbulence. For this purpose one had to use the nonlinear theory and synthesize an effective computational algorithm. A new method for solving computational problems devised by our scientists is millionfold superior to those used in elsewhere.

Acad. Krymsky went on to say that the nonlinear theory determines not only the spectrum but also the absolute value of energy. These characteristics allowed to calculate the parameters of radio-frequency radiation and X-ray and gamma emissions for each SNR and collate the data thus obtained with the available evidence.

This theory provides a correct description of radiation parameters, and its predicted values agreed with the data on gamma radiation in the TeV region detected in the SNR zone. Radial distribution of X-radiation generated by electrons in the SNR magnetic field proved to be an acid test of the theory. This radiation had to have a "shelled" structure due to energy losses in electrons. The stronger the magnetic field, the thinner the X-ray shell. A comparison of theoretical with observational data made it possible, for the first time ever, to measure the SNR magnetic field and find it to be intensified twofold compared with the typical values in the ambient space.

The high magnetic value in SNR reduces by 3 to 4 orders the number of high-energy electrons assessed

See: V Orayevsky, V. Kuznetsov, "The Sun, the Earth, and the Stars...", Science in Russia, No. 5, 2002. -Ed.

** See: Yu. Markov, "Space Telescopes", Science in Russia, No. 1,2002. -Ed.

стр. 12

Satellite CORONAS-F in orbit. It is designated for comprehensive studies of the sun (solar flares, plasma elections, active regions) in a wide band of wavelength-from optics to gamma, and also of Solar cosmic rays.

Satellite CORONAS docked with the CYCLONE rocket before launch on the Plesetsk spacedrome.

according to radio-frequency radiation. Accordingly, electrons cease to operate as a proposed alternative source of gamma radiation in the TeV range, which might appear due to the reverse Compton effect.*

So, considering the magnetic field intensification effect, the discovered high-energy gamma radiation clearly attests to the presence of the nuclear component of cosmic rays in supernova remnants, while its parameters are consistent with theoretical values.

Germogen Krymsky, "The Problem of the Origin of Cosmic Rays Solved", Nauka v Sibiri (Science in Siberia), No. II, 2006

Prepared by Yaroslav SIBIRTSEV

Compton effect discovered by the American physicist Arthur H. Compton (1892 - 1962, Noble Prize, 1927)-shape-elastic scattering of electromagnetic short wavelength radiation (X-ray and gamma-ray emission) on free electrons. This effect confirmed the validity of quantum theory ideas about electromagnetic radiation as a flux of photons and can be viewed as an elastic collision of two "particles"-photon and electron, whereby the photon loses part of its energy (and momentum) to the electron and thus increases the wave-length. Ed.


Permanent link to this publication:

Similar publications: LRussia LWorld Y G


Россия ОнлайнContacts and other materials (articles, photo, files etc)

Author's official page at Libmonster:

Find other author's materials at: Libmonster (all the World)GoogleYandex

Permanent link for scientific papers (for citations):

THE ORIGIN OF COSMIC RAYS // Moscow: Russian Libmonster (LIBMONSTER.RU). Updated: 19.10.2018. URL: (date of access: 06.02.2023).


Reviews of professional authors
Order by: 
Per page: 
  • There are no comments yet
Related topics
Россия Онлайн
Москва, Russia
632 views rating
19.10.2018 (1571 days ago)
0 subscribers
0 votes
Related Articles
Из опыта деятельности: Эта работа выполняется специалистами ветеринарно-санитарной службы органов управления и организаций службы от согласования документации предварительного отбора поставщиков, участия в торгах, согласования контрактной документации в отношении требования к качеству, до работы непосредственно на предприятиях по изучению возможности поставщика обеспечить выполнение договоров и непосредственного лабораторного (экспертного) контроля качества и безопасности продовольствия.
Когда отдыхают ангелы
Yesterday · From Вадим Казаков
"Новый хронограф": летописец времени
Catalog: История 
Yesterday · From Вадим Казаков
Николай II без ретуши
Catalog: История 
Yesterday · From Вадим Казаков
Екатерина II без ретуши
Catalog: История 
Yesterday · From Вадим Казаков
Школа завтра ("Ломоносовъ", Москва)
Yesterday · From Россия Онлайн
Протекание физических процессов в окружающем нас мире имеют не однозначные определения. Примем оценку эксперимента Пауда и Ребки, которую дал выдающий физик Стивен Вайнберг “…., что эксперимент Паунда и Ребки имеет особое значение, как независимая от экспериментов Этвеша и Дикке проверка принципа эквивалентности. Кроме того, эксперимент Паунда и Ребки является первым проведённым в земных условиях экспериментом по изучению влияния гравитации на электромагнитные явления.”
Catalog: Физика 
Животных на поле боя использовали с древних времён, как только человек понял, что на коне он менее уязвим, чем пеший. Впоследствии история знала немало случаев, когда человек делал попытки (с различной степенью успешности) использовать животных в качестве оружия. .. В общем, в средиземноморье конница их вытеснила полностью. Одной из последних попыток использовать колесницы была битва при Гавгамелах (см. про Александра Македонского). Тогда персы попытались использовать серпоносные колесницы, но, как мы знаем, македонской фаланге с 5-метровыми копьями было практически плевать. Несколько иной расклад был на Востоке: в Индии и Китае колесницы вполне нормально использовались параллельно с конницей. В Китае колесницы стали увеличивать в высоту. Таким образом, они играли роль небольших мобильных башен. В Индии колесницы и слоны использовались в качестве ударной силы, в то время как конница прибегала исключительно к дальнему бою.
Маленькая балерина: Исповедь русской эмигрантки
4 days ago · From Вадим Казаков
Прекрасная Гея. Опыт петербургского шизоанализа
Catalog: Философия 
4 days ago · From Вадим Казаков

New Publications:

Popular Publications:

Editor's Choice (Worldwide):

Libmonster is the largest world open library, repository of author's heritage and archive

Register & start to create your original collection of articles, books, research, biographies, photographs, files. It's convenient and free. Click here to register as an author. Share with the world your works!

Watch out for new publications: News only: Chat for Authors:

About · News · For Advertisers · Donate to Libmonster

Russian Libmonster ® All rights reserved.
2014-2023, LIBMONSTER.RU is a part of Libmonster, international library network (open map)
Keeping the heritage of Russia


US-Great Britain Sweden Serbia
Russia Belarus Ukraine Kazakhstan Moldova Tajikistan Estonia Russia-2 Belarus-2

Create and store your author's collection at Libmonster: articles, books, studies. Libmonster will spread your heritage all over the world (through a network of branches, partner libraries, search engines, social networks). You will be able to share a link to your profile with colleagues, students, readers and other interested parties, in order to acquaint them with your copyright heritage. After registration at your disposal - more than 100 tools for creating your own author's collection. It is free: it was, it is and always will be.

Download app for smartphones