By Sergei KALYUZHNY, Dr. Sc. (Chem.), Deputy Head of the Chemical Enzymology Chair of the Chemical Department of Moscow State University named after M. V. Lomonosov
Nitrogen compounds to be found in the sewage of many production units pose a serious threat to the environment. The laws of the Russian Federation stipulate that enterprises shall remove these toxic agents well in advance. In their efforts to improve the traditional purification system and remove a number of flaws typical of it, a group of Russian and foreign researchers joined their efforts to producea new biological process called DEAMOX in 2006.
Nitrogen compounds in the sewage of food-manufacturing enterprises, which are largely represented by ammonium and organic substances that are easily transformed into ammonium in the course of processing by organic substances, accumulate, with their high concentrations formed as a result. The discharge of this kind of waste into rivers and lakes leads to undesirable consequences. First, oxygen contained in it is involved in the biological ammonium oxidation process, and its quantity is reduced. And ammonia formed as a result serves as a strong poison for fish. Secondly, the ground waters located nearby are polluted. Thirdly, the polluted water reservoirs undergo the process of silting, for, along with phosphorus, nitrogen is an important source of plant nutrition. Is that problem actually topical for this country? Take a few figures, by way of example. As a result of starch processing nitrogen content totals 204 - 1,042 mg/1, and the respective figure for yeast manufacture is 250 - 1,200 mg/1. The figures of such pollution for liqueur-and-vodka and alcohol plants are 700 - 850 and 1,300 - 1,450 mg/1, respec-
Biological nitrogen cycle.
tively. Given that the maximum admissible concentration (MAC) of ammonium (N-NH4) for a typical Russian water canal is as a rule 30 mg/1, of nitrite (N-NO2) - 1, and of nitr ... Read more