Libmonster ID: RU-14987
Author(s) of the publication: Nina FILCHAKOVA

by Nina FILCHAKOVA, Dr. Sc. (Tech.), N. Bauman Moscow State Technical University

Dairy products account for a considerable share of the people's diet. As a complicated dispersion system they constantly attract the interest of researchers in their attempts to reveal the mechanism of interaction between their individual structural elements and the mechanism of their formation.

Stabilizers in the form of mixtures of modified starches, sodium alginate and carrageen are used for the production of high-quality dairy products. For the production, say, of ice cream they are used to preserve the dispersion of the fatty phase. Emulsifiers of the group of mono- and diglycerides and polysorbates are introduced in certain of its varieties. Also used are electrolytes from multivalent cations, concentrates of serum protein, cellulose, gelatin, pectin and other substances.

The mechanism of the stabilizers' action can be explained in many ways. It is believed that their key role consists in hydration* of the surface of the liquid/oil dividing line carried out owing to the polarity of the molecules of such ingredients as mono- and diglycerides, casein. And gelatin, lecithin and sucrose, for instance, have an effect on the condition of milk foam. Certain specialists regard hydrocolloids, in particular, starch and agar-agar**, as the most effective stabilizers, for they considerably increase the viscosity of food liquors, while other specialists believe that solely foam-forming substances are indispensable, such as gums, cellulose (water-bounding) ethers, gelatin, sodium alginate, pectin (gel-forming). Such separation of the functional properties of these substances probably leads to a considerable number of them used as ingredients of food products - from 7 to 11 items.

Difference in the specialists' opinion is attributable to the absence of an objective scientific basis for the choice of stabilizers, for the subject has not yet been sufficiently studied. Meanwhile, it is widely known that preservation of the biological value of dairy products'*** is the central problem of their manufacture today, which can


* Hydration - the process of water being added to the substance with or without the destruction of H2 O molecules; ensures the substances' dilution in water and the electrolytic dissociation of compounds with ionic connection. - Ed.

** Agar-agar - a colorless or yellowish solid substance, a mixture of two acidic polysaccharides contained in the cell walls of red algae; it is used as a basis for cultivating cells and microorganisms. - Ed.

*** See: S. Filchakova, "Health-Giving Products", Science in Russia, No. 5, 2005. - Ed.

Pages. 36


Microstructure of the stabilizers' water solutions: a - 1 percent water solution of methylcellulose; b - 2 percent water solution of sodium casemate; c - 2 percent water paste solution of potato starch.

be resolved provided you know general principles governing the stability of their structure marked by the presence of the sufficiently interfacial area between solid, liquid and gas phases in combination with the ability to control them.

Research carried out over many years showed that various changes take place on a molecular level and the percentage of soluble proteins reduces in the process of freezing food products created on the basis of raw milk. As macromolecules draw closer together irreversible links are created, with new structures formed. Insoluble complexes appear making the product's assimilation less effective. It is especially important to resolve the problem of averting the above-mentioned undesirable changes for the manufacture of paste-like, whipped and gelatinized dairy products.

In the course of research we managed to objectively reveal and provide theoretical basis for the mechanism of action of stabilizing components in complicated food systems for the purpose of manufacturing goods for long-term storage in frozen condition. And it is proved that the quality of the final food product depends on the combination of biopolymers and changes in their properties in the course of technological process. Various kinds of substances were chosen for research into the properties of the stabilizers' composition, such as methylcellulose,

Pages. 37


Formation of the air dispersion phase of icecream: a - in the machine cylinder in the whirl current 5 minutes after freezing; b - in ready-made ice cream 8 minutes after freezing.

potato starch, sodium caseinate, etc. In the course of the experiment it was revealed that they form various kinds of biopolymer films in 1 -2 percent solutions corresponding to their composition in the water part of most of the products. Some of them are 30 - 350 mem in size without empty spaces or ruptures, they are rather plastic and preserve their initial characteristics after freezing.

The microstructure of the 2 percent water solution of potato starch, in its turn, forms gel in the form of a net of intertwined strips 20 - 150 mem in width. After freezing it contracts and looks harder, with the meshes reduced to a half or a third of their former size. As soon as starch is defrosted, insoluble sediment is formed, the solution's aggregate stability is reduced, indicating the origin of denaturizing processes as a result of intermolecular interactions due to the shortage of moisture.

As to the 2 percent water solution of sodium caseinate, it represents ramified films with a homogeneous surface, although it is difficult to determine their size, since they form a phase with a great number of bends. The solution's structure is preserved after freezing and freezing out. That makes it quite promising for the manufacture of semi-finished products, products with preset reological* properties providing conditions for line production, automatic formation and preservation of the products' marketable appearance. There are additional requirements for semi-finished products: their stuffing should not be moistened thus destroying the dough coating. The coating shall be kept intact in the process of freezing and the subsequent thermal treatment. If you add a 10 percent solution of caseinate and melange to the curd paste you will obtain a more solid microstructure.

We studied the mechanism of its formation for whipped products in freezing temperatures on ice cream. As a result, it has been found that its air dispersion phase is created in jet currents as a result of hydrodynamic conditions in the freezer** and of the composition of the initial solution-mixture. In the course of the process air bubbles are formed and grow increasingly more compact as they are removed from the turbulent movement center. Under the effect of new pressures they contract, acquire an ellipsoid form and, next, are transformed into smaller ones. A highly dispersed system is also formed in the finished product, with "the spirals" spreading in various directions preserved in it. They are interspersed with large and small air bubbles ranging 20 - 60 mem in size.

Consequently, our studies lead us to the conclusion that the key role of stabilizers in various kinds of dairy products consists in strengthening the structure of the respective solution. And on this basis the final form of the raw products takes shape with the preservation of their biological value and consumer qualities meeting the requirements for healthy nourishment.

Illustrations supplied by the author


* Reology - a section of physics dealing with the study of the flow and deformation of viscous, plastic and resilient media. - Ed.

** Freezer - a machine for beating up and freezing the mixture of semifinished products for the manufacture of ice cream. - Ed.


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Nina FILCHAKOVA, OSTABILIZERS FOR DAIRY RRODUCTS // Moscow: Russian Libmonster (LIBMONSTER.RU). Updated: 19.10.2018. URL: https://libmonster.ru/m/articles/view/OSTABILIZERS-FOR-DAIRY-RRODUCTS (date of access: 15.08.2022).

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