Libmonster ID: RU-17161
Author(s) of the publication: Marina MALYGINA

by Marina MALYGINA, journalist

The biggest Russian forum-10th Moscow International Salon of Innovations and Investments, that gathers together scientists, engineers, inventors and investors, was held in September 2010 in Gostiny Dvor in the Russian capital. About 600 organizations involved in the development of high-tech products from 33 RF regions and 12 foreign countries took part in the forum. It was attended by more than 4,500 people, 1,500 of them were specialists in different fields of science and technology.

Participants of the forum–RAS institutes, higher educational establishments, scientific and research centers, technical parks, small and medium size enterprises, science-oriented towns–offered to the investors over 1,600 projects in the field of nuclear physics, biotechnology and engineering,  machine-building, metallurgy, metrology, optics and laser technology, instrument-making and robotics, information and nanotechnologies, medicine and public health. More than one third of them were prepared in the form of business plans with the risk assessment and expected income.

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The forum demonstrated an important role of higher educational establishments in the development of innovative potential of the regions. More than thirty Russian universities, including Kuban, Murmansk, Vologda, Kazan, Stavropol, Tomsk, Perm, Saratov universities, not only train specialists to develop economy of specific regions, but also generate new ideas and projects. In the recent years the number of proposals that have already passed experimental and design phases, creation of technologies and their implementation, has significantly increased. And this phenomenon can be easily explained: a year ago Federal Law No. 217-FZ was enacted enabling higher educational establishments and research institutes to establish small enterprises. Some educational structures made a good progress in the field of innovations and exhibited final results at the salon. The results are really impressive: by decision of the international jury 299 developments were awarded diplomas and gold medals, 250 and 100 received silver and bronze medals correspondingly.

PROTECTIVE ANTI-BLAST DEVICES

The significant group of professors and students of the Moscow State University of Construction (MSUC) was awarded gold medal for the design of anti-blast devices installed at industrial and civil objects.

The point is that in the course of combustion of a gas-air mixture in the premises (as a rule we call this process a "gas blast"), the volume of releasing products increases by 7-8 times that leads to the growth of pressure on structural elements. For the purpose of load reduction various protective materials are used, in particular, window glass. But it gets broken even from a small blast, combustion product and a part of gas-air mixture are released into the atmosphere, which results in the decrease of pressure in the premises. That is why plastic, aluminum and wooden double glass panes are so popular today–they ensure good heat and noise insulation, meet modern aesthetic requirements, have long service life and are very comfortable. But in case of an accidental gas blast, the load on them is comparable with that of supporting structures, causing destruction. And tragic results are inevitable.

Taking into account the above-said, the specialists proposed to use modern protective anti-blast devices installed together with the double glass panes which make it possible to preserve integrity of the building and human lives in extraordinary situations. For this purpose windows should be equipped with a special shutter with a locking device. The energy of the blast will "open" it even if the pressure is low and the shutter will blow open not damaging the window, while harmful combustion products go outside. Besides, maximal loads do not exceed permissible values: a man inside will hear only a "clap".

The MSUC also developed an anti-blast and fire protection system for transformers and high voltage oil-filled equipment in case of short circuit. Available systems are unable to perform relevant functions as the volume of discharged oil is less (by 4-6 times) than the

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gas-vapor environment generated by the energy of short circuit. It acts as a gasodynamic piston compressing the liquid that leads to the increase of pressure in the tank. Its gradient, i.e. accumulation in the time unit, may reach several atmospheres in a millisecond provoking a dangerous situation–vibration of transformer tank walls that accelerates its destruction.

New development of Moscow scientists is based on the principle of dampering of a hydrodynamic wave arising as a result of short circuit in tanks of oil-filled equipment. The idea is in an even and technologically convenient placing of a 1.5-3.5 cm thick damper layer on 25-30 percent of the area of vertical walls and bottom side of the tank. An elastic and porous material (for example, polyurethane foam or polyurethane) could be used as a damper layer.

BIOTRANSPLANTS FOR REGENERATIVE MEDICINE

Interdisciplinary research work carried out by professors and students of the Saratov State University named after N. Chernyshevsky and their colleagues from the Center of Thermal Injuries resulted in the creation of biocompatible polymer transplants of different morphological forms (film, nonwoven nanofibrous fabric) on the basis of aminopolysaccharide–chitosan–to produce biologically active bandaging materials, antiseptic creams, medical adhesives and sorbents.

They applied a chitosan coating method to produce thin elastic film materials in the form of polysalt and polybase, its compositions with nanoparticles of silver, B1 vitamin and microparticles of acetosalicylic acid that enhance their bactericidal activity and valuable properties. Production technology allowing to manufacture 60-200 nm diameter biofiber and a laboratory nonwoven nanostructured material was tested by the needle-plane method of the so-called electrical forming on the device with interelectrode geometry.

In general, biotransplants have already passed preclinical trials on white mice. Regeneration effect of injured dermal tissues has exceeded all expectations. Clinical trials carried out at the Center of Thermal Injuries were also very impressive. Specialists used film and nanofiber materials to treat thermal injuries, grafting of donated skin, persistent wounds, trophic ulcers, bed sores and other injuries. New bioactive matrixes are not toxic and are compatible with the skin. When treating 2nd and 3rd degree burns, scientists registered a decrease of the bacterial content in the wound and acceleration of reparative processes (twofold as compared with traditional therapy). This socially-oriented research work was sponsored by the Russian Foundation of Fundamental Studies.

NATURAL SUPERANTIOXIDANTS

RAS institutes have been cooperating with the Moscow International Salon of Innovations and Investments for a long time. The exhibition held in Gostiny Dvor demonstrated current state of national science and ways of adaptation of fundamental research results to the economic life. In this context exhibition

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stands of the institutes of solid state physics, structural macrokinetics and problems of materials science (Chernogolovka, Moscow Region), problems of laser and information technologies (Shatura, Moscow Region), chemistry of high-purity substances (Veliky Novgorod), applied mathematics (Moscow), their fellow-workers from the Siberian, Far Eastern, Ural Branches of the RAS, Kola and Southern scientific centers were of high interest.

For example, the Institute of Biological Problems of the Permafrost Zone of the RAS Siberian Branch and the North-Eastern Federal University named after M. Am-mosov (Yakutsk) developed a technology to produce medical preparations on the basis of northern raw materials characterized by adaptogenic, antioxidant, antibacterial, immunomodulating and detoxification properties. Specialists have established: among them are tissues of Northern plants and animals with an increased content (1.5-2.5 times) of biologically active substances of regulatory and protective type as compared with the analogous species of the moderate climate zone of Russia. But the most exciting thing is that they supersede their "relatives" by biological diversity on a molecular level 3-5 times. It is of interest that it is higher in the extreme growing and living conditions. This fact played a key role in the selection of some species of plants and endocrine organs of local animals to manufacture such biological preparations as Epsorin, Roxirin and Yagel. The latter was created by way of processing of mosses of the Cladina family with carbon dioxide in a supercritical state. It acts as a detoxicator reducing the content of bacterial toxic substances in the organism that form as a result of chemotherapy, inflammatory processes and poisoning with heavy metals and alcohol. This preparation helps people suffering from diabetes of the 2nd type and atherosclerosis to normalize the level of glucose in blood and ß-cholesterol correspondingly. It has no analogs by its detoxication efficiency and ability to correct metabolic disorders.

Using achievements of mechano-chemical biotechnology, scientists developed one more preparation Yagel-M from local raw materials. It contains a complex of natural antibiotics–moss acids with cytostatic and antibiotic properties–active in relation to many pathogenic strains of microorganisms, including mico-bacteria of tuberculosis. Specific composition of Yagel-M does not provoke drug resistance.

This very institute developed a new mechano-chemical technology to manufacture a well-known medicine–dihydroquercetin characterized by a record-breaking antioxidant activity–from waste wood and Dahurian larch wastes. It consists of only two low-cost and ecologically safe phases: manufacture of a water-soluble form from a water-insoluble preparation and settling of dihydroquercetin from a low-temperature water solution by way of simple acidification. By the way, the cost price of this product is almost 10 times lower than of a chemically obtained medicine, which greatly extends spheres of its applicability: in addition to medical use, it can be used in food industry (as a

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preservative) and even in technical branches (for example, in construction of oil and gas pipelines) as an antibacterial corrosion additive to metal and polymer structures.

UNDERWATER ROBOTICS

The Caspian Branch of the RAS Institute of Oceanology named after P. Shirshov (Astrakhan) in collaboration with Indel-Partner Company (Moscow) presented an underwater remotely controlled search and observation complex Gnom*. "It is a kind of underwater tele-eyes,–explained one of its developers Vladimir Ushivtsev, Cand. Sc. (Biol.).–An operator controls movements of the device, takes photos of underwater objects and observes marine life using a special joystick (manipulator)." The mechanism integrates modern computer and telecommunication technologies and brand-new materials that make it simple in operation, compact, light and inexpensive. It could be of great help to monitor state of underwater pipelines and wells.

The mechanism passed tests in the Caspian Sea and rivers of the Astrakhan region, and attracted the attention of representatives of the Atyrau Institute of Oil and Gas, Caspian State University of Technology and Engineering named after Sh. Yesenov (Kazakhstan), Baku State University (Azerbaijan). It was awarded gold medal at the exhibition in Moscow.

BASALT-PLASTIC COMPOSITES FOR THE NORTH

The highest award (Grand Prix of the 10th Moscow International Salon) went to Yegor Zhirkov, First Deputy Director General of ОАО "Republican Investment Company" (Republic of Sakha). The joint-stock company he represented at the exhibition is implementing a big investment project Basalt-Plastic Composites for the North in Yakutsk aimed at production of supersolid and durable nanocomposites in the form of so-called roving–continuous basalt fiber. Specialists of the company demonstrated samples of non-trivial products manufactured on the basis of this new material. Such fiber can be used instead of metal structures in almost all branches of national economy–in the automobile and aircraft industry, oil and gas industry, agriculture and military industrial complex. In terms of the Russian North and the Far East characterized by extreme climatic conditions and enormous permafrost regions, nanocomposite construction materials–fiber reinforced foam blocks, fittings with a tension capacity thrice exceeding the same property of metal analogs, road grids reducing the layer of laid asphalt and concurrently increasing service life of road surface 2-3 times-are in high demand.

It is believed that in the next ten years these products will become leaders in national and foreign markets. In May 2010, in the town of Pokrovsk, situated 70 km south from Yakutsk, there was launched a production plant of basalt materials with high thermal, cold and

See: L. Kiselev, "Priorities of Underwater Robotics". Science in Russia, No. 6, 2010.–Ed.

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corrosion resistance properties. It was a long-expected event not only in the Khangala Region, but in the republic as a whole: until recently thermal insulators used in local construction were brought from afar– the Khabarovsk Region–today all hopes are connected with a new town-planning enterprise. At present, when the plant has not yet reached its full capacity, it manufactures 30-50 thous. m3 of mineral wool plates, and about 70 thous. m3 will be produced in the near future. When the plant reaches its designed output (about 150-160 thous. m3 of insulating materials annually), it will cover almost 50 percent of local requirements for thermal insulating materials. By the way, apart from Russia, this technology developed by specialists of research institutes of Yakutia is available only in China and Ukraine.

BUSINESS PROGRAM

For three days of the forum the RF Ministry of Education and Science, the Government of Moscow and the Republican Research Scientific and Advice Center of Expertise (Moscow) held business meetings, round tables and master classes. The presentation of the project New Economy. Innovative Portrait of Russia, the discussion Innovations and Investments: Current State and Perspectives, the conference Development of the Scientific and Technical Cooperation Between Russian Scientific and Educational Centers and Compatriot Scientists   Working Abroad and  the  seminar  Urgent Problems of Russian-American Cooperation in the Field of Innovative Technologies. Fundraising and Implementation of Technological Innovative Projects in Russia and the Mid-Atlantic Region of the USA were in the focus of attention of public at large. The seminar was held with the participation of representatives of state institutions-sponsors of high-technology developments (Russian Venture Company, Vneshekonombank, Rosnano and Rostekhnologii). They discussed how to promote some national companies to the American market.

In conclusion it is worth saying: each year more and more foreign companies become participants, not guests of the Moscow International Salon. This year they were numerous as never before: representatives of Novartis Pharma AG and F Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd. (Switzerland), Evonik Degussa GmbH, Glatt GmbH, Sartorius Group, IKAWERKE GmbH & Co.KG (Germany) and a number of other companies organized their own exhibition stands.


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