Libmonster ID: RU-17303

Yuriy V. BOHAYEVSKY, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Ukraine to Brazil, spoke to the correspondent of the P&T correspondent Volodymyr MUZYKA

* * *

P&T: In the idea of many people, including those of this country, Brazil is the nation of the world soccer and fiery carnivals. These are facts, indeed, but, Yuriy Vadymovych, only giving a partial notion about this fascinating and the largest and most populated country in the region of the South America. Is not it so?

Yuriy BOHAYEVSKY: To tell you frankly, I accepted the proposition of this country's Foreign Ministry to be appointed Ambassador of Ukraine to Brazil enthusiastically straightaway. There were also certain grounds for that. At one time, while heading the Ministry's Department for Countries of Europe and America (later transformed into three separate territorial departments), I was directly involved in the starting of Ukraine's building up relations with the nations of South America and preparing for the first official visit of the Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma to the region. Brazil including, the visit became a particular leap forward by the foreign policy of

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independent Ukraine towards South America. Later, the new official assignments somewhat distanced me from the problems of this region, but the chance has appeared now to get back to where it all started. Of course, I was interested in what had been achieved in relations with Brazil and other countries of the region during all the years that passed, being eager to do everything in my power for their further expansion. It became my principal occupation as the second official representative of Ukraine in the country.

Throughout more that a year and a half I numerously made sure that my agreeing to work here was a correct and fully justified decision.

P&T: In this way, Brazil has become a venue for you to test yourself professionally on a new quite high and responsible diplomatic post. At the same time, how did you apprehend this country as a man from the street?

Yuriy BOHAYEVSKY: The original, purely human impressions of this country proved to be certainly positive, although I took in my initial encounter with Brazil calmly, possibly because it had not been my first visit overseas.

During the period, I discovered a lot for me that helped me realize even more the importance of comprehensive development of Ukraine's cooperation with this great and literally influential nation of South America, which voice, by the way, is well heard on the regional, as well as the world levels.

Opportunely, I would like to tell that in contrast to some other cases the relations between Ukraine and Brazil were rich with concrete and purposeful efforts of both sides.

Which of the results of this work could be considered as groundbreaking events?

Since the time of diplomatic relations having been established more that ten years ago two major events had occurred that may be seen decisive. One is the first official visit to Brazil of President of Ukraine Leonid Kuchma in October of 1995, which laid an important political and legal basis providing a substantial historical boost to bilateral cooperation development, while in January of 2002 the then President of Brazil Fernando Henrique Cardosso. The visit of the Brazilian Head of State to Ukraine that, incidentally, took place just on the eve of the Tenth anniversary of establishing diplomatic relations between the two countries, was an opportunity for the sides to sum up the cooperation during the previous period and define their major priorities for cooperation in the immediate and long-term perspective with the mutual national interests taken into account.

In addition, there were many other events of interest during the course of the past years, official visit exchanges by delegations and individual representatives at various levels (more than 110 all in all), and a good contract and legal basis created. All in all more that 40 intergovernmental, interdepartmental and inter-branch agreements were signed serving a firm ground for fruitful cooperation of the two countries in various fields and spheres.

In summarizing briefly the path that the two countries passed in the

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eleven years, one can say unambiguously that the period of issuing declaration and stating intentions is over. Ukraine and Brazil have started the second decade of their relations firmly resolved to concentrate on realizing concrete mutually profitable joint projects.

P&T: To enlarge on the previous question, I am curious to know how close the present relations between Ukraine and Brazil are.

Yuriy BOHAYEVSKY: In part, I have already told about that, and want only to add that relations between our countries one may describe as a partnership of equals. As of today, the matter concerns their further expansion and filling them with concrete meaning, and imparting dynamics to the bilateral cooperation that would cater to the hopes of the sides and meet their potentialities.

It was exactly the development of strong and constructive relations, particularly in the spheres of economy and scientific and technical cooperation, that the "Joint Declaration on Strengthening Relations of Friendship and Cooperation between Ukraine and Brazil" signed by the Presidents of both countries in Kyiv on January 16, 2002, was targeted at. I should say that the intentions declared at the highest state level are already being realized through concrete efforts.

The evidence of the growing intensity of bilateral relations one may see in the fact that presently, in 2003, Ukraine as independent state is known much better than, let's say, five or six years ago. Incidentally, the latter is not in the least also thanks to the efforts of the Ukrainian community in this country as well as the inter-parliamentary group Brazil-Ukraine headed since 1999 until recently by Ricardo Barrus, member of the Chamber of Deputies for Parana State. The Ukrainian government in a befitting way marked the activity of this Brazilian parliamentary deputy-in January 2003, among the group of others Mr. Barrus was decorated with the Order of Merit 3d class by the Ukrainian President for his significant contributing personally into the development of cooperation between Brazil and Ukraine. Recently, he has handed over the inter-parliamentary group heading to Andre Zakharov, representing that same "Ukrainian" Parana State, who for the first time was elected to the Legislature of the country. We know the new head of the group well and trust cooperation at the parliamentary level of both countries will be even more active, which, in turn, will positively affect intensification of the entire complex of bilateral relations.

Finally, I cannot help noting cheeringly the fact that each year we are witnessing widening of the circle of friends and adherents of Ukraine in our host state.

We are expecting serious 'breakthrough' in the nearest future especially resulting from cooperation of the two countries in realizing of the joint space project Cyclon-4 and the shared undertaking of producing gas turbines under Ukrainian know-how using Brazilian industrial basis. Both sides are equally interested in implementation of both projects.

I believe the outlook is good for

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mutually beneficial cooperation of both countries in the sphere of agricultural production as well. The said spheres do, of course, not limit the Ukrainian-Brazilian cooperation since our plans are more extensive.

P&T: Does so wide a geographical distance between our countries have its effect on the decision making in bilateral trade, establishing and maintaining contacts between the government and public organizations?

Yuriy BOHAYEVSKY: I guess that with the modern means of transportation available geographical distance is of conditional character that should not be an obstacle for cooperation of the countries interested in it. We do not see it as a hindrance for Ukraine and Brazil as well since there are highly promising directions in view for our cooperation.

P&T: Which exactly?

Yuriy BOHAYEVSKY: The bilateral political dialogue is developing dynamically with the meetings at the leaderships of our countries gaining regular character. The basis of this process is the intent of both nations concurred concerning the ways to solve the major world problems. It is, in particular, fighting international terrorism, joining actions to protect the environment, expanding international trade with interests and potentialities of countries with different level of economic development taken into account and any form of discrimination against each other removed.

With the entire responsibility one may state that in relations between Ukraine and Brazil there are no aspects that could have harmed the further development of mutually beneficial cooperation on principles of equal partnership.

P&T: Will you tell us about our economic ties with Brazil? What is the character of them?

Yuriy BOHAYEVSKY: Brazil is known to be rated 10th in the world as to its economic potential, being the country extraordinary rich in agricultural, mineral and industrial resources. With the exception of a few crisis years at the end of the previous century, the economy of the country is developing overall dynamically and in generally stably.

The government of the new President Luis Ignacio Lula da Silva that took up the duties on this January 1 is decisively determined to carry out the series of radical economic reforms directed at speeding up social and economic development of the country, and expanding commercial and financial links, especially, with non- traditional partners in different regions of the globe, Ukraine included. The completion of the prolonged negotiations within the context gaining the World Trade Organization membership by Ukraine at the start of this year is seen as a favorable factor for expanding bilateral contacts in the sphere of trade and economy. Correspondent protocol is expected to be drawn soon concerning mutual access to the markets of goods and services.

This is all the evidence of real opportunities for substantial expansion of

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economic cooperation of Ukraine with Brazil, being our major partner in the South American region.

While talking about the present state of trade between Ukraine and Brazil, one should note that it could not meet the demands of either side considering the potentials for that existing in both countries. The total turnover of bilateral trade in 2002 amounting to US111m (Brazilian statistics) exceeded the figure for 2001. This year, we are observing considerable increase in the volume of mutual trade: US56 m during the four months is twice the amount of the year before. Subject to this welcome trend remaining, we may close the year having much weightier results.

It is worth noting that Ukraine as independent state started cooperation with Brazil only in 1992. Within five years the total volume of bilateral trade has increased from USD3.1m to USD150.3 m in 1997 (here and on statistics of the Ministry of Development, Industry and External Trade of Brazil are presented). Due to various reasons, caused primarily by the 1998 Asian financial crisis and negative effects for economy of the country of the protracted fiscal reform initiated by the previous government of Brazil, starting from 1999 the goods turnover between our states reduced to USD90.0 m.

The tendency for gradual growth appeared in 2002 that the data presented abode proves. The stock list of goods also expanded; in 2002 Ukraine entered the Brazilian market with its wheat for the first time, and started to import meat from Brazil this year. In accord with the agreement reached, which realization would allow Ukraine to consolidate its grip of the Brazilian grain market, the country is to supply close to 500 metric tons of wheat to Brazil this year.

P&T: Are there possibilities to expand the stock list of goods further?

Yuriy BOHAYEVSKY: We believe that it could be substantially expanded at the expense of high-tech goods and services. For instance, Brazil is in possession of advanced technologies in constructing means of transportation, and in the sphere of power engineering, in particular, extracting oil from great depths. This country's experience of using ethanol as fuel for motor vehicles is very interesting. Ukraine has also what to offer additionally; however the level of competitiveness should be seriously considered as well as the quality of our goods and general standard of trade improved.

P&T: There are also others interested in trade with Brazil besides us, aren't there?

Yuriy BOHAYEVSKY: Yes, this is, indeed, so since some countries have realized long age not only the attractiveness but also high prospects of trade with this great nation. As of today, the United States of America has the biggest commodity circulation with Brazil (USD25bn in 2002), as well as Argentina, Japan, Canada, France, Germany, Russia (USD1.680bn), China, and the Republic of South Africa. There are all the chances for Ukraine to join the company.

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P&T: Should the development of bilateral trade and economic cooperation be seen as the priority of the Embassy activity?

Yuriy BOHAYEVSKY: Sure, although so far we are not in a position to compete with other countries as to the volumes of trade. Besides, we do not set ourselves it as an objective. We have our concrete interests that coincide with interests of the Brazilian side. As has been said already the existing level of economic relations is satisfactory neither for Ukraine, nor for Brazil. This is what had been discussed particularly at the meeting I had with Mr. Luis Fernando Furlan, the new Minister of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade of Brazil. With an aim to put the trade and economic cooperation to a qualitatively new level the inter-government mechanisms of interaction should be strengthened, the activity of the Joint Inter-Government Commission on Trade and Economic Cooperation stirred up and the most-favored- nation regime in trade mutually extended.

Our Embassy makes efforts to solve all the above problems within the frames of the authority defined.

P&T: Special features have surfaced in the domestic and foreign policy of Brazil. What are they caused by?

Yuriy BOHAYEVSKY: Attention of all the world principal information agencies and leading international columnists was riveted to Brazil last October drawn in connection with the possible coming to power of new political forces that could happen in case Luis Ignacio Lula da Silva winning in the presidential elections. Representing the Worker's Party, he was known in the past as a decisive opponent of neoliberalism and the governing principle of interacting with international financial institutions and transnational companies, while the political 'clairvoyants' predicted sharp exacerbation of economic situation in Brazil if candidate from the Left gained the upper hand.

Nevertheless, from the very start of its activity the government of the new president proved its ability to secure painless transition of power and to win confidence in Brazil of foreign investors. It succeeded in uniting various political forces for affecting the impending changes, particularly in the system of pension provision and taxation, decreasing budget deficit and strengthening financial stability in the country.

In general, the present leadership of Brazil adheres to the traditional principles of the country's foreign policy, in which the major place is occupied by multilateral diplomacy, in particular, activity in organizations of universal and regional character, while the issues of protecting national interests are emphasized even more.

P&T: The prestige of Brazil seems to grow during the initial phase of the new leadership activity? May be it is only an impression?

Yuriy BOHAYEVSKY: It looks as though Brazil becomes an acknowledged leader of the Latin America region. Development of this country's

стр. 24


relations with the mentioned region along with the nations of the African continent is determined among the principal priorities of its foreign policy.

The leading position of the country is based on high technological level primarily in the oil and gas industry, air transport and financial might that Brazilian leadership channeling to actively expand national export, realize economic projects of regional importance for the good of developing their as well as neighboring countries. No less important is the active stand of the country during the negotiation within the frames of the World Trade Organization and working out principles of creating free-trade zone of the Western Hemisphere knows as ALCA.

Several Brazilian diplomats occupy important positions at influential international organizations; the fact is seen as recognition of authority and competence of the country's diplomacy. It is worthy at least to mention Rubens Ricupero, the General Secretary of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), and Sergio Viera de Mello, the United Nations High Commissioner on Human Rights. Before September 2002 he headed the UN mission to administer transition to independence in East Timor being appointed recently the Special Representative of the UN Secretary General in Iraq.

P&T: How often does the Brazilian mass media mention Ukraine?

Yuriy BOHAYEVSKY: Compared to the former years, the interest of both the local mass media and public opinion is growing notably, being a fact, contributed primarily by the bilateral cooperation stirred up. Its successful development becomes the subject of regard for the mass media of Brazil more often thus paying towards objective familiarization of the public, political and business circles of the country with Ukraine and its potentialities.

Interests of Brazilians also spark towards the tourist capabilities of Ukraine. The Embassy employs all the information available to satisfy the ever-growing demand for it and is ready to assist in popularizing such data in Brazil. In this respect, we are hoping for energetic help of the Ukrainian tourist companies to supply us with lively and persuasive promotion materials that are virtually absent here.

Despite some positive signs, present one must admit that still much effort should be exerted to make to problem of Ukraine's presence in information space of Brazil not as burning as it is today. I believe that at the time when this country's presence in the South American region becomes more appreciable we should also dig in the sphere of human communication there. For a start, it could be achieved also by opening at least one press center of that same "Ukrinform". In this respect, being the most developed country in the region and recognized a recognized leader in the area, Brazil is exactly the country, where its must be done first and foremost.

P&T: In the meantime...?

Yuriy BOHAYEVSKY: In the

стр. 25


meantime, we vigorously attempt to use our already firm contacts with the local media seeking for new forms of interaction; Ukrainian language means of mass communication are also within our attention being rendered diverse information assistance by us.

Efforts of the Embassy alone are not enough and the issue should be attended all together as the saying goes.

P&T: Much also depends on the top policymakers of Brazil. To what extent do they show interest in Ukraine?

Yuriy BOHAYEVSKY: During the five months of the new government of this country in power, I had more than twenty meetings with ministers, their deputies, heads of principal departments, as well as with the leadership of the National Congress and heads of certain parliamentary commissions. Especially, I would mention the meetings with the senior officers of state responsible for branches of Brazilian economy that are the most promising for the development of fruitful cooperation between Ukraine and Brazil: Dilma Rusef, Minister of Mining and Energy Resources, Robert Amaral, Minister of Science and Technology, Luis Furlan, Minister of Industrial Development and Foreign Trade, and Roberto Rodriguez, Minister of Agriculture, Cattle Breeding and Food Supply.

Practically during every meeting, the Ministers demonstrated knowledge regarding the level achieved in bilateral cooperation and confirmed their readiness to promote its further development. At the same time, the issue at question was not mere replication of the 'former model' of managing the country: the new leadership stressed the distinctions of their economic policy and accentuated new approach towards relations with other countries. Their prime concern is securing lasting and viable nature of bilateral cooperation in the context of the national interests, which provision our side too proceeds from.

P&T: Hence, there is a conviction existing among the new leadership of Brazil concerning the need to continue further the development of bilateral relations with Ukraine?

Yuriy BOHAYEVSKY: Yes, there is, and it is of the most importance for us. There are preliminary agreements reached concerning arranging a series of visits to Ukraine at ministerial and departmental levels to personally see the potentials of the Ukrainian industry, our technological and scientific breakthrough, potentialities of the Ukrainian agricultural sector as well as share experience in some special fields.

A new impetus for cooperation in the sphere of joint space research and science and technology may give the visit to Ukraine at the end of May of Robert Amaral, the Minister of Science and Technology. It was the first official visit by member of the new Brazilian government to prove its interest in further development of cooperation with our country.

On order of the day is the arrangement of the second official visit to Brazil by President of Ukraine Leonid Kuchma

стр. 26


at invitation of his Brazilian counterpart. It would be the major political event in bilateral relations this year. To prepare a proper basis for negotiations at the highest level, arrangement of visits by some other delegations from Ukraine is being worked out.

P&T: Which in general most colorful signs of the Ukrainian life in Brazil could you make?

Yuriy BOHAYEVSKY: The mere fact of four hundred strong Ukrainian community existing in Brazil is already may be seen as a graphic evidence of the essence of the Brazilian multiethnic society, its harmonious integrity making it main feature. Irrespective of origin, everybody feels himself a true Brazilian here, taking pride in this fact while honoring and preserving one's ethnic roots.

During my residence here, I had numerous chances to meet local Ukrainians. Incidentally, my first trip out of the nation's capital city as Ambassador happened to be exactly to Curitiba-the Ukrainian capital of the country. It is here that that you can see and feel quite appreciable Ukrainian presence. In particular, the Square of Ukraine, park with the monument to Taras Shevchenko erected there on the initiative of the Ukrainian community and inaugurated in October of 1995 with the President of Ukraine participating, Ukrainian churches, etc. are the evidence of this. Traditional are the annual Taras Shevchenko celebrations held here.

But what strikes most are the people who sincerely express their true love for Ukraine having along the decades within their quite scarce means preserved and continued Ukrainian tradition, our national culture and language from generation to generation. This is especially impressive in view of the fact that more than 90 percent of the Brazilian Ukrainians were born already in this country. These are their second and third generations.

Ukrainian could be met in almost 60 municipalities of the Parana State alone. Ukrainians also do not shun the problems of our country. During 1999 to 2000, with the financial help of the Ukrainian community of Brazil three groups of children from Ukraine that suffer from the Chernobyl disaster aftermath have been here to recuperate and undergo medical treatment. In the course of the one of the trips, I happened to visit the settlement which inhabitants encountered representative of the independent Ukraine for the first time and this amazed me the most. It was a stirring and unforgettable event.

I would like also to note that the Embassy and the Consulate at Curitiba with the Consul Valeriy Hryhorash at the head maintain good relations with the Ukrainian community of Brazil as well as with the leaders of public organizations. We deem it our duty to give them and the artistic amateur groups, editorial staffs of the Ukrainian language papers, and Ukrainian businesspeople all-round backing, and with the help of Kyiv to comply with their requests and the barest necessities.

P&T: What could you tell about the countries of your by-job

стр. 27


accreditation?

Yuriy BOHAYEVSKY: Evidently, you know that besides Brazil on the principle of plurality of offices I was appointed ambassador also to Bolivia, Venezuela, and Ecuador. You understand, of course, that on top of honor it is a great responsibility to bear.

During the time I had an opportunity to go to all of these countries, visiting Ecuador even twice: to present my credentials to the president of the country in office at that time, and, this January, as a special representative of the Ukrainian President at the inauguration ceremony of the newly elected Lucio Gutierras, who received me during his first day in office.

Each of the three countries has peculiarities of their own both of the internal political situation and social and economic development. We cannot but take into account these factors when building up Ukrainian relations with them.

Recently, we commemorated the Tenth anniversary of establishing diplomatic relations between Ukraine and Ecuador. Having observed such a jubilee in Bolivia, we are to celebrate the decennial of the Ukraine-Venezuela relations this September.

Definite level of bilateral relations already exists with each of the countries mentioned, but much is still to be done to achieve the dynamics that would satisfy us. Together with our colleagues in these countries, we are hammering out concrete issues to stir up the bilateral relations.

We hope that this year the President of Ecuador in particular will come to Ukraine with an official visit.

The very important thing for us in all these three countries is the fact that both on the formal level as well as in business circles there interest to expand relations with Ukraine as an independent nation.

While visiting these countries I became aware that Ukraine was known here ever since it a constituent part of the state already non-exiting since quite a few representatives of Latin America studied at different institutions of higher learning of Kyiv, Kharkiv, Odesa and other Ukrainian cities. I happen to meet such a graduate at the capital of Ecuador at the official reception to mark the inauguration of the new President of this country. Overhearing us speaking Ukrainian, one of the guests approached and asked whether we were from Russia. On hearing that we are from Ukraine and I was the by-job Ambassador of the country in Ecuador, our new interlocutor beamed putting a start to recollections of his studies in Kyiv. What came as a surprise, however, was the fact the man, an engineer by trade, turned out to be the cousin of the new President. Meetings of the sort retain in one's memory for long.

Also, I recall with pleasure the meeting organized at my request by the Arturo Griffin, the Honorary Consul of Ukraine in Ecuador, with a large group of Ukrainian citizens that for various reasons happened to stay in the country. Questions addressed to the Ambassador were numerous including the quite hot

стр. 28


ones. The nostalgia of many of them for their homes in Ukraine made itself felt. I will keep remembering how some of them made excuses that did not possess adequate knowledge of the Ukrainian, while two of the guys even sang a Ukrainian folk song.

P&T: At the end of the interview, please tell under what kind of conditions do our diplomats have to live and work?

Yuriy BOHAYEVSKY: My answer will be short; no one complains so far since it would be unjust. We are living in normal conditions that allow all our efforts to focus on carrying out the tasks we were authorized to do. We find time to have our rest though not always and not all of us, although possibilities for that are in abundance starting from joining different service clubs to fishing that I also enjoy since childhood. My wife and I use every opportunity to visit cultural events and various exhibits.

As to the working conditions, we had moved last year with the help of out Foreign Ministry to a new, more spacious and cozy premises that fully caters to our needs, including the issues of our protection and security.

There is one particular feature: our Embassy is located at the distance of several kilometers from the center of the capital in a region buried in verdure we call 'village' among ourselves. It is a quiet and highly regarded location, which environment favors our active and creative work.


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